Головна English for Everyone - Business English - Level 2 - Course Book

English for Everyone - Business English - Level 2 - Course Book

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PLEASE NOTE - this is a replica of the print book and you will need paper and a pencil to complete the exercises.

English for Everyone is an exciting and comprehensive self-study course for adults learning English as a foreign language. This course is a unique new series with a visual, engaging, and easy to follow style to make the English language easy to learn.

Learn business English by reinforcing key language skills, grammar rules, and vocabulary with listening, speaking, reading, and writing exercises. This unique course is easy to use, starting at beginner level and working up to advanced English to help you grow in confidence as you learn. This Business English Intermediate Course Book introduces business topics such as interpersonal skills, meeting vocabulary, emailing a client, and attending interviews.

Audio material is provided at every stage through the English For Everyone website and Android/iOS apps to provide vital experience of spoken English and make even tricky phrases easy to understand. Perfect for personal study or to support exams including TOEFL and IELTS, English for Everyone is suitable for all levels of English language learners.

File: partly with OCR

Категорії:
Рік:
2017
Видавництво:
DK, Dorling Kindersley
Мова:
english
Сторінки:
192
ISBN 13:
9780241275146
Серії:
English for Everyone
Файл:
PDF, 90,30 MB

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Author
Victoria Boobyer is a freelance writer, presenter, and teacher trainer
with a background in English-language teaching and teacher
management. She has a keen interest in the use of graded readers
and the sound pedagogical use of technology in teaching.

Course consultant
Tim Bowen has taught English and trained teachers in more than 30
countries worldwide. He is the co-author of works on pronunciation
teaching and language-teaching methodology, and author of
numerous books for English-language teachers. He is currently
a freelance materials writer, editor, and translator. He is a member
of the Chartered Institute of Linguists.

Language consultant
Professor Susan Barduhn is an experienced English-language
teacher, teacher trainer, and author, who has contributed to
numerous publications. In addition to directing English-language
courses in at least four different continents, she has been President
of the International Association of Teachers of English as
a Foreign Language, and an adviser to the British Council
and the US State Department. She is currently a Professor
at the School for International Training in Vermont, USA.

ENGLISH
FO R E V E RYO N E
COURSE BOOK LEVEL
BUSINESS ENGLISH

Contents
Project Editors Lili Bryant, Laura Sandford
Art Editors Chrissy Barnard, Paul Drislane, Michelle Staples
Editor Ben Ffrancon Davies
Editorial Assistants Sarah Edwards, Helen Leech
Illustrators Edwood Burn, Michael Parkin, Gus Scott
Managing Editor Daniel Mills
Managing Art Editor Anna Hall
Audio Recording Manager Christine Stroyan
Jacket Designer Ira Sharma
Jacket Editor Claire Gell
Managing Jacket Editor Saloni Singh
Jacket Design Development Manager Sophia MTT
Producer, Pre-production Andy Hilliard
Producer Mary Slater
Publisher Andrew Macintyre
Art Director Karen Self
Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf
DK India
Senior Managing Art Editor Arunesh Talapatra
Senior Art Editor Chhaya Sajwan
Art Editors Meenal Goel, Roshni Kapur
Assistant Art Editor Rohit Dev Bhardwaj
Illustrators Manish Bhatt, Arun Potti; rayil,
Sachin Tanwar, Mohd Zishan
Editorial Coordinator Priyanka Sharma
Pre-production Manager Balwant Singh
Senior DTP Designers Harish Aggarwal, Vishal Bhatia
DTP Designer Jaypal Chauhan
First published in Great Britain in 2017 by
Dorling Kindersley Limited
80 Strand, London, WC2R 0RL
Copyright © 2017 Dorling Kindersley Limited
A Penguin Random House Company
10 8 6 4 2 1 3 5 7 9
001–296905–Jan/2017
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored
in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted,
in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior
written permission of the copyright owner.
A CIP catalogue record for this book
is available from the British Library.
ISBN: 978-0-2412-7514-6
Printed and bound in China
A WORLD OF IDEAS:
SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW

www.dk.com

How the course works
Introductions

8
12

New language Present simple and continuous
Vocabulary Etiquette for introductions
New skill Introducing yourself and others

Getting to know colleagues

16

New language Past simple and past continuous
Vocabulary Sharing past experiences
New skill Talking about past experiences

Vocabulary
Departments and roles

20

Talking about changes

22

New language “Used to,” “be / get used to”
Vocabulary Small talk
New skill Talking about changes at work

Delegating tasks

26

New language Modal verbs for obligation
Vocabulary Delegation and politeness
New skill Delegating tasks to colleagues

Vocabulary Money and finance

30

Writing a report

32

New language Past perfect and past simple
Vocabulary Formal business English
New skill Writing reports

Making apologies

36

New language Present perfect continuous
Vocabulary Apologies
New skill Apologizing on the telephone

Describing a product

60

New language Adjective order
Vocabulary Opinion and fact adjectives
New skill Describing a product

Vocabulary
Communication technology

40

Vocabulary
Marketing and advertising

64

Making plans by email

42

Marketing a product

66

New language Email language
Vocabulary Meetings and workshops
New skill Making plans

Keeping clients informed

New language Adjectives and adverbs
Vocabulary Descriptive adjectives
New skill Modifying descriptions of products

44

New language Continuous tenses
Vocabulary Arrangements and schedules
New skill Keeping clients informed

Informal communication

70

New language Intensifiers
Vocabulary “Enough,” too,” “so,” and “such”
New skill Adding emphasis to descriptions

48

New language Phrasal verbs
Vocabulary Arrangements and plans
New skill Keeping co-workers informed

Advice and suggestions

74

New language Modal verbs for advice
Vocabulary Workplace pressures
New skill Giving advice

Vocabulary Production

52

Describing a process

54

New language The passive voice
Vocabulary Processes and manufacturing
New skill Discussing how things are done

Advertising and branding

Vocabulary
Management, leadership, and skills

78

Talking about abilities

80

New language Modal verbs for abilities
Vocabulary Workplace skills
New skill Describing abilities

Comparing and contrasting

84

New language Discourse markers
Vocabulary Teamwork and team building
New skill Expressing your ideas

Planning events

88

New language Verb patterns
Vocabulary Corporate entertainment
New skill Talking about business events

94

What people said

96

New language Reported speech
Vocabulary Meetings
New skill Reporting what someone said

102

106

New language “Few,” “little,” and “all”
Vocabulary Meetings
New skill Talking about quantity

Checking information
New language Subject questions, question tags
Vocabulary Polite checks and echo questions
New skill Checking information

Job descriptions

118

New language Articles
Vocabulary Job descriptions and applications
New skill Describing a job

122

New language Dependent prepositions
Vocabulary Cover-letter vocabulary
New skill Writing a cover letter

Job interviews

126

New language Relative clauses
Vocabulary Job interviews
New skill Describing your achievements in detail

New language Reported questions
Vocabulary “Have,” “make,” “get,” “do”
New skill Reporting what someone asked

Reporting quantities

116

Applying for a job

Vocabulary Meetings

What people asked

Vocabulary
Industries and professional attributes

Vocabulary Business idioms

132

Working relationships

134

New language Three-word phrasal verbs
Vocabulary Social media
New skill Social networking

Career outcomes
110

138

New language Modal verbs for possibility
Vocabulary Career development
New skill Talking about the future

Vocabulary
Office and presentation equipment

142

Structuring a presentation
New language Signposting language
Vocabulary Presentation equipment
New skill Structuring a presentation

Developing an argument

152

156

160

New language Indirect questions
Vocabulary Business negotiations
New skill Negotiating politely

Emphasizing your opinion
New language Discourse markers for emphasis
Vocabulary Workplace disagreement
New skill Emphasizing your opinion

174

New language Third conditional
Vocabulary Workplace mistakes
New skill Talking about past mistakes

New language Collocations
Vocabulary Business trends
New skill Describing facts and figures

Plans and suggestions

Discussing problems

148

New language Comparatives and superlatives
Vocabulary Product marketing
New skill Comparing products

Talking about facts and figures

168

New language Conditionals
Vocabulary Negotiating and bargaining
New skill Discussing possibilities

New language Useful presentation language
Vocabulary Presentations
New skill Developing an argument

Pitching a product

Discussing conditions

144

166

Answers

178

Index

190

How the course works
English for Everyone is designed for people who want to teach
themselves the English language. The Business English edition
covers essential English phrases and constructions for a wide
range of common business scenarios. Unlike other courses,
English for Everyone uses images and
Job interviews
graphics in all its learning and practice,
to help you understand and remember
as easily as possible. The best way to learn
is to work through the book in order,
making full use of the audio available on
the website and app. Turn to the practice
book at the end of each unit to reinforce
your learning with additional exercises.
In a job interview, it is important to describe your
achievements in a specific and detailed way. You
can use relative clauses to do this.

Job interviews
In a job interview, it is important to describe your
achievements in a specific and detailed way. You can
use relative clauses to do this.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS
New language Relative clauses
Vocabulary Job interviews
New skill Describing your achievements in detail

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DESCRIBED
MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS
MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

New language Relative clauses
Vocabulary Job interviews
New skill Describing your achievements in detail

KEY LANGUAGE DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

Defining relative clauses give essential
information that helps to identify a person
or thing. Here, the defining relative clause
gives essential information about a thing.

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

110 OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE
CROSS

111

In defining relative clauses, this is
the relative pronoun for things.

110-113_Unit_32_Job_Interviews.indd 110

PRACTICE BOOK

26/08/2016 11:49 110-113_Unit_32_Job_Interviews.indd 111

26/08/2016 11:49

Here, the defining relative clause gives
essential information about people.

MAIN CLAUSE

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

This relative pronoun is
used for people.

The defining relative clause can also
go in the middle of the main clause.

MAIN CLAUSE

RETURN TO MAIN CLAUSE

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

126

126-131_EFE_Business_B2_talking_about_your_experiences_unit32.indd 126

Unit number The book is divided
into units. The unit number helps
you keep track of your progress.

Learning points Every unit
begins with a summary of
the key learning points.

Advice and suggestions
English uses modal verbs such as “could,” “should,” and
“must” for advice or suggestions. They can be used to
help co-workers in difficult or stressful situations.

Language learning
Modules with colored
backgrounds teach
new language points.
Study these carefully
before moving on to
the exercises.

COURSE BOOK

25/08/2016 16:55

Modules Each unit is broken down
into modules, which should be done
in order. You can take a break from
learning after completing any module.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

New language Modal verbs for advice
Vocabulary Workplace pressures
New skill Giving advice

KEY LANGUAGE GIVING ADVICE
English uses “could,” “should,” and “must”
to vary the strength of advice given.

127

25/08/2016 16:55 126-131_EFE_Business_B2_talking_about_your_experiences_unit32.indd 127

Strong advice.
Suggestion or
gentle advice.

Very strong
advice.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
MARK WHETHER KATE ADVISES
GIORGOS TO DO THE ACTIVITY IN
EACH PICTURE

FURTHER EXAMPLES GIVING ADVICE
“Ought to” also expresses
strong advice.

Use “not” after modal
verbs to form negatives.

No

Yes

Yes

No

MATCH THE SITUATIONS TO THE CORRECT ADVICE

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

74

074-077_EFE_Business_B2_Advice_and_suggestions_unit19.indd 74

FREE AUDIO
website and app
www.dkefe.com
8

No

25/08/2016 16:40 074-077_EFE_Business_B2_Advice_and_suggestions_unit19.indd 75

Audio support Most
modules are supported
by audio recordings to help
you improve your speaking
and listening skills.

Exercises Modules
with white backgrounds
contain exercises that help
you practice your new
skills to reinforce learning.

No

75

25/08/2016 16:40

Language modules
New language is shown in the context of common business scenarios. Each
learning module introduces appropriate English for a particular situation,
as well as general points of English language to improve your overall fluency.
Module number Every module
is identified with a unique number,
so you can track your progress and
easily locate any related audio.

Module heading The teaching
topic appears here, along with
a brief introduction.

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Graphic guide Clear, simple visuals help
to explain the meaning of new language
forms, and show you business situations
in which you might expect to use them.

The present perfect continuous describes an ongoing situation in the past that often
affects the present moment. You can use it to offer explanations for problems.

Sample language New language points
are introduced in common business
contexts. Colored highlights make
new constructions easy to spot, and
annotations explain them.

The situation usually
affects the present
moment or recent past.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Add “not” or its short form after “have” or “has” to form the negative.

Supporting audio This symbol
indicates that the model sentences
featured in the module are available
as audio recordings.

In questions, the subject sits between “have” or “has” and “been.”

HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
SUBJECT

“HAS / HAVE”

Use “has” or “have,”
depending on the subject.

BEEN

“Been” stays the same
for all subjects.

VERB + “-ING”

Formation guide Visual guides
break down English grammar into its
simplest parts, showing you how to
recreate even complex formations.

REST OF SENTENCE

Add “-ing” to the
main verb.

38

Vocabulary
Vocabulary Throughout the book,
vocabulary modules list the most
common and useful English words
and phrases for business, with visual
cues to help you remember them.

MONEY AND FINANCE

036-039_EFE_Business_B2_Making_Apologies_Unit8.indd 38

25/08/2016 16:39

Write-on lines You are
encouraged to write your own
translations of English words to
create your own reference pages.
30

030-031_VOCAB-_MONEY_AND_FINANCE_UNIT6.indd 30

05/09/2016 12:22

9

Practice modules

REWRITE THE ZERO CONDITIONAL SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN
THE CORRECT ORDER

Each learning point is followed by
carefully graded exercises that help to fix
new language in your memory. Working
through the exercises will help you
remember what you have learned and
become more fluent. Every exercise is
introduced with a symbol to indicate
which skill is being practiced.

GRAMMAR
Apply new language rules
in different contexts.

VOCABULARY
Cement your understanding
of key vocabulary.

READING
Examine target language
in real-life English contexts.

SPEAKING
Compare your spoken English
to model audio recordings.

LISTENING
Test your understanding
of spoken English.
MATCH THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT RESPONSES

Module number Every module is
identified with a unique number,
so you can easily locate answers
and related audio.

Exercise instruction Every
exercise is introduced with a
brief instruction, telling you
what you need to do.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE CORRECT TENSES TO
FORM FIRST CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Sample answer The first question of
each exercise is answered for you, to
help make the task easy to understand.

Keeping clients informed
LISTEN TO THE AUDIO,

Use the present continuous to inform clients about
current situations and future arrangements. Continuous
tenses can also soften questions and requests.

New language Continuous tenses
NUMBER
THE PHRASES
VocabularyTHEN
Arrangements
and schedules
IN THE
ORDER
YOU HEAR THEM
New skill Keeping
clients
informed

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORD IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN
SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
English uses the present continuous to
describe what’s happening right now.

Use “still” to emphasize that
a situation is ongoing.

171

Space for writing You are
encouraged to write your
answers in the book for
future reference.

Supporting graphics
Visual cues are given
to help you understand
the exercises.

168-173_296905_discussing_conditions_unit43.indd 171

English also uses the present continuous to talk
about arrangements for a fixed time in the future.

Ethan takes a phone call
from a customer who
wants to complain
25/08/2016 16:55
about
an order she
has placed.

Use the present continuous with a future time
marker to talk about future arrangements.

Speaking exercise
This symbol indicates that you should
say your answers out loud, then
compare them to model recordings
included in your audio files.

Listening exercise This symbol
indicates that you should listen to
an audio track in order to answer
the questions in the exercise.

37

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHETHER THE ACTIVITY IN EACH
PICTURE TAKES PLACE IN THE PRESENT OR THE
FUTURE
036-039_EFE_Business_B2_Making_Apologies_Unit8.indd
37

Present

Present

Present

Future

Future

44

10

Future

Supporting audio This symbol shows 25/08/2016
that the answers to the exercise are
available as audio tracks. Listen to
them after completing the exercise.

044-047_EFE_Business_B2_Keeping_clients_informed_unit11.indd 44

Present

Future

Present

Future

25/08/2016 16:39

16:39

Audio
English for Everyone features extensive supporting audio materials.
You are encouraged to use them as much as you can, to improve
your understanding of spoken English, and to make your own
accent and pronunciation more natural. Each file can be played,
paused, and repeated as often as you like, until you are confident
you understand what has been said.
LISTENING EXERCISES
This symbol indicates that you should
listen to an audio track in order to
answer the questions in the exercise.

FREE AUDIO
website and app
www.dkefe.com

SUPPORTING AUDIO
This symbol indicates that extra audio
material is available for you to listen
to after completing the module.

Track your progress
READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

The course is designed to make it easy to monitor your progress,
with regular summary and review modules. Answers are provided
for every exercise, so you can see how well you have understood
each teaching point.

Answers Find the
answers to every
exercise printed at
the back of the book.

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Checklists Every unit ends with a
checklist, where you can check off
the new skills you have learned.

Exercise numbers
Match these numbers
to the unique identifier
at the top-left corner
of each exercise.

CHECKLIST
Modal verbs for obligation

Delegation and politeness

Delegating tasks to colleagues

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 1–5
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

INTRODUCING YOURSELF AND
OTHERS

Review modules At the end of a
group of units, you will find a more
detailed
review module, summarizing
THE PAST
TENSE FOR POLITENESS
CHECKLIST
the language you have
learned.
Modal verbs for obligation
Delegation and politeness
THE PAST SIMPLE AND THE PAST
CONTINUOUS FOR PAST EXPERIENCES

TALKING ABOUT THE RECENT PAST
WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
TALKING
ABOUT
CHANGES
WITH
REVIEW
THE
ENGLISH
“USED TO” AND “BE / GET USED TO”

UNIT

Check boxes Use these boxes
to mark the skills you feel
comfortable with. Go back and
review anything you feel you
need to practice further.
Delegating tasks to colleagues

YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 1–5

NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

DELEGATING
TASKS
WITH MODALS
INTRODUCING
YOURSELF
AND
OTHERS
THE PAST SIMPLE AND THE PAST
CONTINUOUS FOR PAST EXPERIENCES

Audio This symbol
indicates that the
answers can also
be listened to.

29

THE PAST TENSE FOR POLITENESS
026-029_296905_Tasks_B2_unit5.indd 29

26/08/2016 11:00

TALKING ABOUT THE RECENT PAST
WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
TALKING ABOUT CHANGES WITH
“USED TO” AND “BE / GET USED TO”
DELEGATING TASKS WITH MODALS

29

026-029_296905_Tasks_B2_unit5.indd 29

26/08/2016 11:00

11

Introductions
When you first join a company, there are many phrases
that you can use to introduce yourself. Other people
may also use a variety of phrases to introduce you.

New language Present simple and continuous
Vocabulary Etiquette for introductions
New skill Introducing yourself and others

KEY LANGUAGE INTRODUCING YOURSELF AND OTHERS
It is common to shake hands with new
colleagues and introduce yourself.
Use when you meet
someone you have
heard about.

When you meet
someone you think you
may have met before.

When you meet
someone for the
first time.

It is polite to introduce people you know
but who do not know each other.
When you know both parties, introduce
each one separately, saying both their names.

12

Say a polite
response
when you are
introduced.
“How do you do?”
is quite formal.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE INTRODUCTIONS TO THE CORRECT
ENDINGS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING
THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Delegates at a conference are
introducing themselves.

13

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT SIMPLE AND THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
The present simple is used to describe something that happens in general,
or is part of a routine. The present continuous describes something that is
happening right now, and will be continuing for a limited time.

Present simple is the same as the
base form of the verb without “to.”

Present continuous is formed by adding
“be” before the verb and “-ing” to the verb.

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

14

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN SAY THE
SENTENCES OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Present simple and continuous

Etiquette for introductions

Introducing yourself and others

15

Getting to know colleagues
Talking about your past work experience is a good way
to get to know your colleagues. Past simple and past
continuous tenses are often used to do this.

New language Past simple and past continuous
Vocabulary Sharing past experiences
New skill Talking about past experiences

KEY LANGUAGE THE PAST SIMPLE AND THE PAST CONTINUOUS
Use the past simple to talk about a single, completed action in
the past, past habits, or a state that was true for a time in the past.
Add “-ed” to most verbs to
form the past simple.

Many common verbs have
irregular past simple form.

Use the past continuous to talk about ongoing actions
that were in progress at a certain time in the past.

HOW TO FORM THE PAST SIMPLE AND THE PAST CONTINUOUS
The past simple is usually formed by adding “-ed” to the base form of the verb. The past continuous
is formed by adding “was” or “were” in front of the verb, and “-ing” to the end of the verb.
SUBJECT

16

PAST CONTINUOUS

REST OF CLAUSE

PAST SIMPLE

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

KEY LANGUAGE THE PAST TENSE
FOR POLITENESS

MARK THE SENTENCES
THAT ARE CORRECT

You may hear people ask questions about a present
situation in the past tense. This makes the question
more polite.
“Do” becomes “Did” to make
the question in past tense.

The past tense is also sometimes
used to make a polite request.

17

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
The present perfect simple is used to talk about events in the
recent past that still have an effect on the present moment.
A specific date is
given, so the past
simple is used.

No date is specified, so the
present perfect is used.

HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
The present perfect simple is formed
with “have” and a past participle.
SUBJECT

“HAVE / HAS” + PAST PARTICIPLE

REST OF SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

18

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Two colleagues are
discussing their past
experience.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN SAY THE
SENTENCES OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Past simple and past continuous

Sharing past experiences

Talking about past experiences

19

Vocabulary
DEPARTMENTS

20

ROLES

DESCRIBING ROLES

21

Talking about changes
There are many ways to talk about changes at work
in the past and present. Many of the phrases include
“used to,” which can have several different meanings.

New language “Used to,” “be / get used to”
Vocabulary Small talk
New skill Talking about changes at work

KEY LANGUAGE “USED TO,” “GET USED TO,” AND “BE USED TO”
“Used” with an infinitive describes
a regular habit or state in the past.
“To eat” is the infinitive
form of the verb.

“Get used to” describes the process
of becoming familiar with something.

“Be used to” describes being
familiar with something.

“Get used to” can be followed by a
noun or gerund.

“Be used to” can be followed
by a noun or gerund.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “USED TO,” “GET USED TO,” AND “BE USED TO”
In questions and negatives,
there is no “d” after “use.”

22

MARK THE SENTENCES
THAT ARE CORRECT

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN
NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE
ORDER THEY ARE DESCRIBED

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

23

MATCH THE PAIRS OF PHRASES THAT MEAN THE SAME THING

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

24

MARK THE BEST REPLY
TO EACH STATEMENT

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN
SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
“Used to,” “be / get used to”

Small talk

Talking about changes at work

25

Delegating tasks
When things get busy, you may want to delegate tasks
to colleagues. To do this, different modal verbs are used
in English to show the level of obligation.

New language Modal verbs for obligation
Vocabulary Delegation and politeness
New skill Delegating tasks to colleagues

KEY LANGUAGE MODAL VERBS FOR OBLIGATION
Certain modal verbs can be used to say
that someone needs to do something.

“Need” acts like a modal verb here, expressing strong obligation.

“Don’t have to” means that there is
no obligation to do something.

“Must” is a direct, and sometimes impolite,
way to say something needs to be done.

“Must not” means that something is prohibited.

HOW TO FORM MODAL VERBS FOR OBLIGATION
“Must” does not change
with the subject, but
“have to” becomes “has
to” in the third person
singular. Both are
followed by the base
form of the main verb.

26

SUBJECT

“MUST / HAVE TO”

MAIN VERB

REST OF SENTENCE

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

MARK THE SENTENCES
THAT ARE CORRECT

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
A manager is
delegating tasks to an
employee at a firm.

27

KEY LANGUAGE POLITENESS
To maintain a friendly, polite atmosphere,
you can use “we” instead of “you” to
express obligation.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE
CORRECT ORDER

Other modal verbs can also be used
in business to delegate tasks politely.

“Would” is more formal
and is rarely used.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN SAY THE
SENTENCES OUT LOUD

28

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Modal verbs for obligation

Delegation and politeness

Delegating tasks to colleagues

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 1–5
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

INTRODUCING YOURSELF AND
OTHERS
THE PAST SIMPLE AND THE PAST
CONTINUOUS FOR PAST EXPERIENCES
THE PAST TENSE FOR POLITENESS
TALKING ABOUT THE RECENT PAST
WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
TALKING ABOUT CHANGES WITH
“USED TO” AND “BE / GET USED TO”
DELEGATING TASKS WITH MODALS

29

Vocabulary
MONEY AND FINANCE

30

31

Writing a report
When writing a report, you may need to use different
past tenses to show sequences of events. You may also
need to use more formal phrasing.

New language Past perfect and past simple
Vocabulary Formal business English
New skill Writing reports

KEY LANGUAGE PAST PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
English uses the past perfect and the past simple together to
describe past events that occurred at different times. The past
simple describes the event that is closest to the time of speaking.
PAST PERFECT

TWO MONTHS AGO

PAST SIMPLE

ONE MONTH AGO

FURTHER EXAMPLES PAST PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
Add “not” or its short form after
“had” to form negatives.

Invert “had” and the subject to form questions.

HOW TO FORM THE PAST PERFECT
SUBJECT

“HAD”

“Had” does not change
with the subject.

32

PAST PARTICIPLE

The past participle describes
the event in the past.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PAST PERFECT OR
PAST SIMPLE

READ THE REPORT AND MARK
THE CORRECT SUMMARY

KEY LANGUAGE PROJECT REPORTS
Here are some examples of formal language
typically found in project reports.
Formal alternative to
“This report shows.”

Use the infinitive with “to” to talk about purpose.

Formal reports often use the passive voice.

Formal alternative to “said.”

Formal alternative to “first.”

Formal alternative to “main.”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

34

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Past perfect and past simple

Formal business English

Writing reports

35

Making apologies
The present perfect continuous describes ongoing
situations in the past that may affect the present. It can
be used in apologies and to give reasons for problems.

New language Present perfect continuous
Vocabulary Apologies
New skill Apologizing on the telephone

KEY LANGUAGE TELEPHONE APOLOGIES
English uses a variety of phrases for making apologies, offering
to investigate a problem, and offering explanations and solutions.
You can also say “so” or “really” instead
of “very” to make an apology stronger.

Informal alternative
to “investigate.”

Use this to reassure a customer
that you will try to help.

Use this to ask a customer to stay on the
phone while you investigate a problem.

Use this to politely ask for information.

Use the future with “will”
to offer compensation.

Many problems can
be explained by
talking about recent
ongoing situations.

36

MATCH THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT RESPONSES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO,
THEN NUMBER THE PHRASES
IN THE ORDER YOU HEAR THEM

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORD IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN
SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD

Ethan takes a phone call
from a customer who
wants to complain
about an order she
has placed.

37

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
The present perfect continuous describes an ongoing situation in the past that often
affects the present moment. You can use it to offer explanations for problems.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

The situation usually
affects the present
moment or recent past.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Add “not” or its short form after “have” or “has” to form the negative.

In questions, the subject sits between “have” or “has” and “been.”

HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
SUBJECT

Use “has” or “have,”
depending on the subject.

38

“HAS / HAVE”

“Been” stays the same
for all subjects.

BEEN

VERB + “-ING”

Add “-ing” to the
main verb.

REST OF SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT
PERFECT CONTINUOUS

READ THE EMAIL AND ANSWER
THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Present perfect continuous

Apologies

Apologizing on the telephone

39

Vocabulary
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

40

41

Making plans by email
English uses a variety of phrases to make and check
plans with co-workers by email. It is important to
ensure that even informal messages are polite.

KEY LANGUAGE EMAILS TO CO-WORKERS
In business emails, it is important to use polite and clear language to
exchange information with co-workers. Emails to co-workers are
often less formal than emails to clients or senior personnel.

New language Email language
Vocabulary Meetings and workshops
New skill Making plans

TIP

Keep your style consistent.
For example, if you add a
comma after your greeting,
remember to add one
after your sign-off, too.

This is a neutral and
informal greeting.
“Dear” is more formal.
Neutral and informal
opening sentence.

Use the past simple
to make requests
more polite.
Set phrase for suggesting
times and dates.
You can also say
“Please find… attached.”
This means that Giorgio
can also read the email.

A more polite way of
saying “tell me.”
This is an
informal sign-off.

42

READ THE EMAIL AND MARK
THE CORRECT SUMMARY

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Email language

Meetings and workshops

Making plans

43

Keeping clients informed
Use the present continuous to inform clients about
current situations and future arrangements. Continuous
tenses can also soften questions and requests.

New language Continuous tenses
Vocabulary Arrangements and schedules
New skill Keeping clients informed

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
English uses the present continuous to
describe what’s happening right now.

Use “still” to emphasize that
a situation is ongoing.

English also uses the present continuous to talk
about arrangements for a fixed time in the future.

Use the present continuous with a future time
marker to talk about future arrangements.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHETHER THE ACTIVITY IN EACH
PICTURE TAKES PLACE IN THE PRESENT OR THE FUTURE

Present

Present

44

Future

Present

Future

Future
Present

Future

Present

Future

READ THE EMAIL AND WRITE ANSWERS
TO THE QUESTIONS AS FULL SENTENCES

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE CORRECT VERBS

45

KEY LANGUAGE CONTINUOUS
TENSES FOR POLITENESS
In correspondence with clients, English often uses
continuous tenses to make requests more polite or
promises less specific.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS

PAST CONTINUOUS
The past continuous is only
used for politeness here.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS
Use “will,” “be,” and the verb with
“-ing” to form the future continuous.

46

REWRITE THE HIGHLIGHTED
PHRASES, CORRECTING
THE ERRORS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

CHECKLIST
Continuous tenses

Arrangements and schedules

Keeping clients informed

47

Informal communication
Phrasal verbs have two or more parts. They are often
used in informal spoken and written English, in things
such as messages and requests to co-workers.

New language Phrasal verbs
Vocabulary Arrangements and plans
New skill Keeping co-workers informed

KEY LANGUAGE PHRASAL VERBS
Phrasal verbs consist of a verb
followed by at least one particle.
Most particles in phrasal verbs
are prepositions, and the particle
often changes the meaning of
the verb.

Verb

The particle often changes the meaning of the verb.

FURTHER EXAMPLES PHRASAL VERBS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

48

Particle

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE SENTENCES
IN THE ORDER YOU HEAR THEM
Nicky leaves a
telephone message
for her co-worker, Oscar.

READ THE EMAIL AND MATCH THE
PHRASAL VERBS TO THEIR DEFINITIONS

49

KEY LANGUAGE SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS
With some phrasal verbs, the object of the sentence can
go before or after the particle. The meaning is the same.

The object can go
after the particle.

The object can come between the verb and the particle.

FURTHER EXAMPLES SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES BY CHANGING THE POSITION OF THE PARTICLE

50

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS
IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Phrasal verbs

Arrangements and plans

Keeping co-workers informed

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 7–12
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

PAST PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE

PROJECT REPORTS

TELEPHONE APOLOGIES

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

EMAILS TO CO-WORKERS

CONTINUOUS TENSES

PHRASAL VERBS

51

Vocabulary
PRODUCTION

52

53

Describing a process
The passive voice can be useful when you need to
describe how a process works. It emphasizes the
action rather than the person or thing doing it.

New language The passive voice
Vocabulary Processes and manufacturing
New skill Discussing how things are done

KEY LANGUAGE TALKING ABOUT PROCESSES WITH THE PASSIVE VOICE
The present simple
passive is formed using
“am / is / are” and the
past participle.

The present simple passive
describes current or routine events.

The present continuous
passive is formed using
“am / is / are” plus “being”
and the past participle.

The present continuous passive
describes ongoing actions.

The present perfect
passive is formed using
“have / has” plus “been”
and the past participle.

The past simple
passive is formed
using “was / were”
and the past participle.

The past continuous
passive is formed using
“was / were” plus “being”
and the past participle.

The past perfect
passive is formed using
“had been” and the
past participle.

54

The present perfect passive
describes past events that still
have an effect on the present.

The past simple passive describes a
single completed action in the past.

The past continuous
passive describes ongoing
actions in the past.

The past perfect passive describes events
that took place before another past event.

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

55

KEY LANGUAGE AGENTS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE
“By” can be used to show the person
or thing doing the action.

This active sentence emphasizes the
person doing the action (“our CEO”).

In the passive sentence, the action is
emphasized and “the launch” is the subject.

“By” is added to show the person doing the action,
while still emphasizing the action itself.

HOW TO FORM AGENTS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE
SUBJECT

FORM OF “BE”

PAST PARTICIPLE

REST OF SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PASSIVE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

56

“BY”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING THE PASSIVE VOICE, USING “BY”
TO SHOW THE AGENT

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DESCRIBED

57

KEY LANGUAGE MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE
Certain modals can be used as set phrases in
the passive voice to express ideas such as
possibility, ability, likelihood, and obligation.

MATCH THE ACTIVE SENTENCES TO THE
PASSIVE SENTENCES WITH THE SAME MEANING

58

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS USING THE
WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
The passive voice

Processes and manufacturing

Discussing how things are done

59

Describing a product
When describing a product, you will usually use
adjectives. You can use more that one adjective,
but they must be in a particular order.

New language Adjective order
Vocabulary Opinion and fact adjectives
New skill Describing a product

TIP

KEY LANGUAGE ADJECTIVE ORDER
The meaning of an adjective decides its
order in a sentence. Opinions come first,
followed by different types of facts.

Don’t use more
than two or three
adjectives in
a sentence.

Fact adjectives also have their own
order, depending on their meaning.

OPINION ADJECTIVE

FACT ADJECTIVES

SIZE

NOUN

MATERIAL

KEY LANGUAGE ADJECTIVE ORDER IN DETAIL
OPINION

SIZE

AGE

COLOR

NATIONALITY

MATERIAL

NOUN

WRITE THE WORDS FROM THE PANEL IN THE CORRECT GROUPS
OPINION

60

SIZE

AGE

COLOR

NATIONALITY

MATERIAL

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHICH THINGS ARE DESCRIBED

61

KEY LANGUAGE SPECIFIC AND GENERAL OPINIONS
General opinion adjectives always come before specific ones. General opinion
adjectives can describe lots of different things. Specific opinion adjectives can
only usually describe a certain type of thing.
OPINION ADJECTIVES

“Nice” is a general opinion
adjective. It can describe
lots of different things.

FACT
ADJECTIVE

“Friendly” is a specific opinion
adjective. It usually only
describes people or animals.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

62

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT
LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS
USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Adjective order

Fact and opinion adjectives

Describing a product

63

Vocabulary
MARKETING AND ADVERTISING

64

65

Marketing a product
You can use a variety of adjectives and adverbs to describe
the key features when marketing a product or service.
Not all adjectives can be modified in the same way.

New language Adjectives and adverbs
Vocabulary Descriptive adjectives
New skill Modifying descriptions of products

KEY LANGUAGE NON-GRADABLE ADJECTIVES
Most adjectives are known as “gradable”
adjectives. They can be modified with
grading adverbs, such as “slightly,” “very,”
and “extremely.” Non-gradable adjectives
cannot be modified in this way.
Gradable adjectives like “good” can
be modified with grading adverbs
like “extremely” and “very.”

Non-gradable adjectives like
“fantastic” cannot be
modified by grading adverbs.

FURTHER EXAMPLES NON-GRADABLE ADJECTIVES
Non-gradable adjectives fall
into three categories: extreme,
absolute, and classifying.

Extreme adjectives are
stronger versions of gradable
adjectives. “Enormous” has
the sense of “extremely big.”

66

Absolute adjectives like
“unique” describe fixed
qualities or states.

Classifying adjectives
are used to say that
something is of a
specific class or type.

WRITE THE ADJECTIVES FROM THE PANEL IN THE CORRECT CATEGORIES
EXTREME

ABSOLUTE

CLASSIFYING

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

67

KEY LANGUAGE NON-GRADING ADVERBS
Some adverbs can be used to qualify non-gradable
adjectives. These are called “non-grading adverbs,”
and often mean “entirely” or “almost entirely.”
They cannot usually be used with gradable adjectives.

FURTHER EXAMPLES NON-GRADING ADVERBS

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

68

KEY LANGUAGE “REALLY,” “FAIRLY,” AND “PRETTY”
A few adverbs can be used with both gradable and non-gradable
adjectives. They are “really” (meaning “very much”), and “pretty”
and “fairly” (both meaning “quite a lot, but not very”).

TIP

Gradable

Note that “fairly”
can have a negative
connotation and so is not
normally used to suggest
something is very good
or necessary.

Non-gradable

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Two marketing executives
are discussing products at
a trade fair.

CHECKLIST
Adjectives and adverbs

Descriptive adjectives

Modifying descriptions of products

69

Advertising and branding
When you want to tell people about your company,
product, or brand, intensifiers like “enough,” “too,” “so,”
and “such” can help communicate your point.

New language Intensifiers
Vocabulary “Enough,” “too,” “so,” and “such”
New skill Adding emphasis to descriptions

KEY LANGUAGE “ENOUGH” AND “TOO”
“Enough” can be used after an adjective or
adverb to show that it’s the right degree.

Adjective + “enough”

Adverb + “enough”

“Too” can be used before an adjective or
adverb to show that it’s more than enough.

“Too” + adjective

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

70

“Too” + adverb

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHICH THINGS ARE DESCRIBED

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

71

KEY LANGUAGE “SO” AND “SUCH”
“Such” can be added before a noun to add emphasis. It can
also be added before an adjective and noun combination.

“Such” + “a / an” + noun

TIP

“Such” + “a / an” +
noun is more common
with extreme nouns such
as “success” rather than
neutral ones such as
“event.”

“Such” + “a / an” + adjective + noun

“So” can be added before an adjective
or an adverb to add emphasis.

“So” + adjective

“So” + adverb

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

72

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN SAY THE
SENTENCES OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Intensifiers

“Enough,” “too,” “so,” and “such”

Adding emphasis to descriptions

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 13–18
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

DESCRIBING A PROCESS WITH
THE PASSIVE VOICE
DESCRIBING A PRODUCT WITH
CORRECT ADJECTIVE ORDER
SPECIFIC AND GENERAL OPINIONS
NON-GRADABLE ADJECTIVES AND
NON-GRADING ADVERBS
“ENOUGH” AND “TOO”

“SO” AND “SUCH” FOR EMPHASIS

73

Advice and suggestions
English uses modal verbs such as “could,” “should,” and
“must” for advice or suggestions. They can be used to
help co-workers in difficult or stressful situations.

New language Modal verbs for advice
Vocabulary Workplace pressures
New skill Giving advice

KEY LANGUAGE GIVING ADVICE
English uses “could,” “should,” and “must”
to vary the strength of advice given.

Strong advice.
Suggestion or
gentle advice.

Very strong
advice.

FURTHER EXAMPLES GIVING ADVICE
“Ought to” also expresses
strong advice.

MATCH THE SITUATIONS TO THE CORRECT ADVICE

74

Use “not” after modal
verbs to form negatives.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
MARK WHETHER KATE ADVISES
GIORGOS TO DO THE ACTIVITY IN
EACH PICTURE

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

75

KEY LANGUAGE MAKING SUGGESTIONS
Use “What about…?” with a gerund or “Why don’t
we…?” with a base verb to make suggestions.

HOW TO FORM SUGGESTIONS
“WHAT ABOUT”

GERUND

“WHY DON’T WE”

BASE VERB

REST OF SENTENCE

FURTHER EXAMPLES MAKING SUGGESTIONS

USE THE CHART TO CREATE SIX CORRECT SENTENCES
AND SAY THEM OUT LOUD

76

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Modal verbs for advice

Workplace pressures

Giving advice

77

Vocabulary
MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP

SKILLS AND ABILITIES

78

79

Talking about abilities
To talk about people’s skills, for example in a
performance review, you can use various modal
verbs to express present, past, and future ability.

New language Modal verbs for abilities
Vocabulary Workplace skills
New skill Describing abilities

KEY LANGUAGE TALKING ABOUT PRESENT ABILITY
Use “can,” “can’t,” and “cannot” to talk about
people’s skills and abilities in the present.

FURTHER EXAMPLES TALKING ABOUT PRESENT ABILITY
Negative form of “can.”
English also uses “cannot.”

FILL IN THE GAPS USING “CAN” OR “CAN’T”

80

KEY LANGUAGE TALKING ABOUT PAST ABILITY
Use “could” to talk about abilities in the past.
The negative form is “couldn’t” or “could not.”

PAST

NOW

PAST

NOW

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

81

KEY LANGUAGE TALKING ABOUT FUTURE POTENTIAL
English uses “could” to talk about people’s future abilities
and potential. In this context, “could” can be followed by
most English verbs.

Use “could” before most verbs to talk
about possible future situations.

You can also use “would” followed by “do,” “make,” or “be” to
talk about future potential. “Would” is stronger than “could,”
and suggests that something is more likely to happen.
Use “do” or “make” after “would”
to talk about future potential.

MARK WHETHER THE STATEMENTS REFER TO PAST OR FUTURE ABILITY

82

Past

Future

Past

Future

Past

Future

Past

Future

Past

Future

Past

Future

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Shona is having her
annual performance
review with her manager.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN SAY THE
SENTENCES OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Modal verbs for abilities

Workplace skills

Describing abilities

83

Comparing and contrasting
In team discussions, discourse markers can ease the flow
of conversation. They can help link similar or contrasting
ideas, or connect an action to a result.

New language Discourse markers
Vocabulary Teamwork and team building
New skill Expressing your ideas

KEY LANGUAGE EXPRESSING SIMILAR IDEAS
Some discourse markers link ideas
that are similar to each other.

KEY LANGUAGE EXPRESSING CONTRASTING IDEAS
Some discourse markers link contrasting ideas.

84

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
A team-building coach is giving
feedback on two teams’ performances.

85

KEY LANGUAGE TALKING ABOUT RESULTS
Some discourse markers
link an action or situation
with its result.

Less formal discourse markers.

More formal discourse markers.

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE STATEMENTS TO THE
CORRECT ENDINGS

86

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT
LOUD, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

CHECKLIST
Discourse markers

Teamwork and team building

Expressing your ideas

87

Planning events
Many English verbs that are used to give opinions or talk
about plans, intentions, and arrangements are followed
by a gerund or an infinitive.

New language Verb patterns
Vocabulary Corporate entertainment
New skill Talking about business events

KEY LANGUAGE VERBS AND GERUNDS / INFINITIVES
Some English verbs are followed by gerunds.
Verb

Other verbs, often those that express plans
or intentions, are followed by an infinitive.

Gerund

Verb

Infinitive

HOW TO FORM VERBS AND GERUNDS / INFINITIVES
START OF SENTENCE

START OF SENTENCE

VERB

VERB

GERUND

INFINITIVE

FURTHER EXAMPLES VERBS AND GERUNDS / INFINITIVES

88

REST OF SENTENCE

REST OF SENTENCE

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

READ THE ADVERTISEMENT
AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE
QUESTIONS AS FULL SENTENCES

89

KEY LANGUAGE VERBS PLUS GERUND OR INFINITIVE (CHANGE IN MEANING)
Some verbs change their meaning depending
on the form of the verb that follows them.

FURTHER EXAMPLES VERBS PLUS GERUND OR INFINITIVE (CHANGE IN MEANING)
In general, the gerund is often used for an action that happens before,
or at the same time as, that of the main verb. The infinitive is used to
describe an action that happens after the main verb’s action.
VERB + GERUND

90

VERB + INFINITIVE

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Sunita and Darren are
arranging for some overseas
clients to visit their office.

USE THE CHART TO CREATE NINE CORRECT SENTENCES
AND SAY THEM OUT LOUD

91

KEY LANGUAGE VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE
Some verbs, particularly ones that express orders or
requests, can be followed by an object and another
verb in the infinitive.

Verb

Object

Infinitive

HOW TO FORM VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE
SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT

INFINITIVE

FURTHER EXAMPLES VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

92

REST OF SENTENCE

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN
THE CORRECT ORDER

CHECKLIST
Verb patterns

Corporate entertainment

Talking about business events

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 19–23
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

GIVING ADVICE

MAKING SUGGESTIONS

TALKING ABOUT ABILITIES
COMPARING AND CONTRASTING
IDEAS
VERBS WITH GERUNDS AND
INFINITIVES
VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE

93

Vocabulary
MEETINGS

94

95

What people said
When telling co-workers what someone else said, you
can take what they said (direct speech) and rephrase it
accurately and clearly. This is called reported speech.

New language Reported speech
Vocabulary Meetings
New skill Reporting what someone said

KEY LANGUAGE REPORTED SPEECH
The main verb in reported speech is usually
“said.” The reported verb is usually in a
different tense from the direct speech.
Direct speech uses the
present simple.

“That” is usually added after
“said” in reported speech.

Reported speech uses the past
simple for the reported verb.

KEY LANGUAGE REPORTED SPEECH IN DIFFERENT TENSES
The tense used in reported speech is usually one
tense back in time from the tense in direct speech.

Past continuous replaces
present continuous.

Past perfect replaces
present perfect.

“Would” replaces “will.”
“Could” replaces “can.”

96

KEY LANGUAGE REPORTED SPEECH AND THE PAST SIMPLE
The past simple in direct
speech can either stay as
the past simple or change
to the past perfect in
reported speech. The
meaning is the same.

MATCH THE DIRECT SPEECH TO THE REPORTED SPEECH

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THEM INTO REPORTED SPEECH

97

KEY LANGUAGE TIME AND PLACE REFERENCES
If speech is reported
some time after it
was said, words used
to talk about times
and places may need
to change.

The time reference
is “yesterday” in
direct speech.

The time reference is
“the day before” in
reported speech.

FURTHER EXAMPLES TIME AND PLACE REFERENCES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE REPORTED SENTENCES
IN THE ORDER YOU HEAR THEM AS DIRECT SPEECH

98

KEY LANGUAGE OTHER CHANGES IN REPORTED SPEECH
In reported speech, pronouns may also need to be changed
to ensure they refer to the correct person or thing.

“These” is replaced by
the more distant “those.”

“This” is replaced by
the more distant “that.”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

99

KEY LANGUAGE “TELL” IN REPORTED SPEECH
In reported speech, “tell” can also be used as the main verb. It must
be followed by an object, which shows who someone is talking to.

Unlike ”say,” “tell” must be
followed by an object.

KEY LANGUAGE REPORTING VERBS WITH “THAT”
“Say” and “tell” do not
give any information
about the speaker’s
manner. They can be
replaced with other
verbs that suggest the
speaker’s mood or
reason for speaking.

“Admit” suggests a
confession on the part
of the speaker.

FURTHER EXAMPLES REPORTING VERBS WITH “THAT”

100

REPORT THE DIRECT SPEECH OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS USING
THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Reported speech

Meetings

Reporting what someone said

101

What people asked
You can use reported questions to tell someone what
someone else has asked. Direct questions and reported
questions have different word orders.

New language Reported questions
Vocabulary “Have,” “make,” “get,” “do”
New skill Reporting what someone asked

KEY LANGUAGE REPORTED OPEN QUESTIONS
Direct open questions
are reported by
swapping the order
of the subject and
the verb, and changing
the tense of the verb.

HOW TO FORM REPORTED OPEN QUESTIONS
SUBJECT

REPORTING VERB

The main verb in reported
questions is usually “ask.”

The object can
be left out.

OBJEC T

QUESTION WORD

SUBJECT

The subject comes before the
verb in reported questions.

The tense moves one tense
back from direct speech.

FURTHER EXAMPLES REPORTED OPEN QUESTIONS

An object can be included to say who was asked the original question.

When a question uses the verb “do,”
this is left out of reported questions.

102

VERB

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Two co-workers, Krista
and Mandy, are
discussing a launch.

103

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL TO CREATE
MORE COLLOCATIONS WITH “HAVE,” “MAKE,” “GET,” AND “DO”

104

KEY LANGUAGE REPORTED CLOSED QUESTIONS
If the answer to a question is “yes” or “no,” “if ”
or “whether” is used to report the question.
Reported question uses
“if ” or “whether.”

Direct question.

The object after “asked” can be left out.

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD AS REPORTED QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Reported questions

“Have,” “make,” “get,” “do”

Reporting what someone asked

105

Reporting quantities
In presentations and reports, you may need to talk about
how much of something there is. The words you can use
to do this depend on the thing you are describing.

New language “Few,” “little,” and “all”
Vocabulary Meetings
New skill Talking about quantity

KEY LANGUAGE “FEW” FOR SMALL NUMBERS
“Few” is used with plural countable nouns to
say that there are not many of something.
It emphasizes how small the number is.

“Few” can also be used as a
pronoun to mean “not many.”

“A few” is used with countable nouns
to mean “some.” It emphasizes that the
number, though small, is enough.

“Very” can be used to stress that the
number of something is even smaller.

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

106

KEY LANGUAGE “LITTLE” FOR SMALL AMOUNTS
“Little” is used with uncountable nouns to say
that there is not much of something in UK
English. It emphasizes how small the amount is.

“Little” can also be used as a
pronoun to mean “not much.”

“A little” is used with uncountable nouns
to mean “some.” It emphasizes that the
amount, though small, is enough.

Informally, “a (little)
bit of ” can be used
instead of “a little.”

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN SAY THE
SENTENCES OUT LOUD

107

KEY LANGUAGE “ALL” AS A PRONOUN
“All” can sometimes be used as
a pronoun to mean either
“everything” or “the only thing.”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

108

MATCH THE PAIRS OF SENTENCES THAT MEAN THE SAME THING

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

A sales executive is
reporting to his manager
about the results from
the last quarter.

CHECKLIST
“Few,” “little,” and “all”

Meetings

Talking about quantity

109

Checking information
Sometimes you may need to clarify whether you have
understood a point. There are a number of ways to
politely check information in conversation.

New language Subject questions, question tags
Vocabulary Polite checks and echo questions
New skill Checking information

KEY LANGUAGE SUBJECT QUESTIONS
In English, most
questions ask about
the person or thing
receiving that action
(the object). If you
want to find out or
confirm who or what
did an action, you can
use subject questions.

The answer is the subject
of the question.

Question doesn’t use “did.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES SUBJECT QUESTIONS

HOW TO FORM SUBJECT QUESTIONS
“Who” (for people)
and “what” (for things)
are the most common
pronouns used in
subject questions.

SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT

There is no inversion
of word order in
subject questions.

110

REWRITE THE QUESTIONS,
PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE
CORRECT ORDER

MARK THE BEST QUESTION
FOR EACH SITUATION

111

KEY LANGUAGE QUESTION TAGS
Another way to check
information is by using
question tags. The
simplest question tags
use the verb “be” with
a pronoun matching the
subject of the sentence.

STATEMENT

QUESTION TAG

For statements with “I,” “aren’t I?” is used
in the negative question tag, not “amn’t I?”

For most verbs other
than “be,” a present
simple statement is
followed by a question
tag with “do” or “does.”

PRESENT SIMPLE

A past simple
statement
is followed by
a question tag
with “did.”

A statement with
an auxiliary verb is
followed by a
question tag with
the same auxiliary.

PAST SIMPLE

AUXILIARY
VERB

Auxiliary verb

Statements with
modal verbs such as
“could,” “would,” and
“should” are followed
by question tags with
the same modal.

112

MODAL VERB

QUESTION TAG

QUESTION TAG

MAIN
VERB

QUESTION TAG

Main verb
describes the action.

Question tag
uses the same
auxiliary verb.

QUESTION TAG

HOW TO FORM QUESTION TAGS
A positive statement is followed by a negative question tag,
and a negative statement is followed by a positive question tag.
POSITIVE STATEMENT

Verb is positive.

NEGATIVE QUESTION TAG

Question tag uses
negative form of verb.

NEGATIVE STATEMENT

POSITIVE QUESTION TAG

Verb is negative.

Question tag
uses positive
form of verb.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT
QUESTION TAGS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE CORRECT QUESTION TAGS

113

VOCABULARY POLITE CHECKS AND ECHO QUESTIONS
There are also certain
set phrases you can
use to politely check
information.

Be careful not to say “What?” too
directly, as it can sound rude.

You can also repeat the important word or phrase you
want to check, or echo part or all of the sentence with
a question word or phrase at the end.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

A sales assistant is
calling her manager to
check a few details and
confirm information.

114

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN SAY THE
SENTENCES OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Subject questions, question tags

Polite checks and echo questions

Checking information

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 24–28
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

REPORTED SPEECH

REPORTING VERBS

REPORTED QUESTIONS

“FEW,” “LITTLE,” AND “ALL”
CHECKING INFORMATION WITH SUBJECT
QUESTIONS AND QUESTION TAGS
POLITE CHECKS AND
ECHO QUESTIONS

115

Vocabulary
INDUSTRIES

116

PROFESSIONAL ATTRIBUTES

117

Job descriptions
English uses “a” or “an” in descriptions of jobs and
to introduce new information. The zero article refers
to general things, and “the” refers to specific things.

New language Articles
Vocabulary Job descriptions and applications
New skill Describing a job

KEY LANGUAGE “A” AND “AN”
Use “a” or “an”
to introduce new
information. Use
“the” when the reader
or listener already
knows what you are
talking about.

Use “a” because this is the first
time “job” is mentioned.

Use “an” before a vowel sound.

Use “the” because it is clear from the context that
this is the application form for the engineer job.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

118

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN
NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE
ORDER THEY ARE DESCRIBED

KEY LANGUAGE ZERO AND DEFINITE ARTICLES (PLURALS)
With plurals, English uses no article (zero article) to talk about things in
general. Use “the” (definite article) to talk about specific things.
General

Specific

FURTHER EXAMPLES ZERO AND DEFINITE ARTICLES (PLURALS)

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

119

KEY LANGUAGE MORE USES OF THE ZERO ARTICLE
Use the zero article to talk about company names, place names
(including most countries and continents), and languages.

KEY LANGUAGE MORE USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
Use “the” to talk about specific roles and departments
within a company, and for international organizations.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

120

REWRITE THE HIGHLIGHTED
PHRASES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN SAY THE
SENTENCES OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Articles

Job descriptions and applications

Describing a job

121

Applying for a job
Cover letters for job applications should sound fluent
and confident. Using the correct prepositions after verbs,
nouns, and adjectives can help you achieve this.

New language Dependent prepositions
Vocabulary Cover-letter vocabulary
New skill Writing a cover letter

KEY LANGUAGE DEPENDENT PREPOSITIONS
Some English words cannot be used on
their own. They need to be followed by
specific “dependent” prepositions.

“Apply” cannot be paired
with any other preposition
in this context.

FURTHER EXAMPLES DEPENDENT PREPOSITIONS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

122

READ THE COVER LETTER AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

MATCH THE PHRASES THAT MEAN THE SAME

123

KEY LANGUAGE DEPENDENT PREPOSITIONS (CHANGE IN MEANING)
Some words can be paired with different dependent prepositions.
Their meaning changes depending on which preposition is used.

FURTHER EXAMPLES DEPENDENT PREPOSITIONS (CHANGE IN MEANING)

FILL IN THE GAPS WITH THE CORRECT PREPOSITION

124

USING THE CLUES, WRITE THE
WORDS FROM THE PANEL IN THE
CORRECT PLACES ON THE GRID

READ THE COVER LETTER
AND CROSS OUT THE
INCORRECT WORDS

ACROSS

DOWN

CHECKLIST
Dependent prepositions

Cover-letter vocabulary

Writing a cover letter

125

Job interviews
In a job interview, it is important to describe your
achievements in a specific and detailed way. You
can use relative clauses to do this.

New language Relative clauses
Vocabulary Job interviews
New skill Describing your achievements in detail

KEY LANGUAGE DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Defining relative clauses give essential
information that helps to identify a person
or thing. Here, the defining relative clause
gives essential information about a thing.
MAIN CLAUSE

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

In defining relative clauses, this is
the relative pronoun for things.

Here, the defining relative clause gives
essential information about people.
MAIN CLAUSE

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

This relative pronoun is
used for people.

The defining relative clause can also
go in the middle of the main clause.

MAIN CLAUSE

126

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

RETURN TO MAIN CLAUSE

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

127

KEY LANGUAGE NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Non-defining relative clauses
give extra information about
situations, people, or things.

MAIN CLAUSE

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

Relative pronoun for situations in
non-defining relative clauses.

Non-defining relative
clauses can also go in the
middle of a sentence.

MAIN CLAUSE

NON-DEFINING
RELATIVE CLAUSE

RETURN TO MAIN CLAUSE

Relative pronoun for things in
non-defining relative clauses.

The relative pronoun for
people is “who” in nondefining relative clauses.

MAIN CLAUSE

NON-DEFINING
RELATIVE CLAUSE

Relative pronoun
for people.

128

TIP

Commas separate
non-defining relative
clauses from
main clauses.

RETURN TO MAIN CLAUSE

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LISTEN TO THE INTERVIEW, THEN NUMBER
THE SENTENCES IN THE ORDER YOU HEAR THEM

129

KEY LANGUAGE MORE RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Relative clauses can use other relative pronouns,
depending on the nouns they refer to.

Use “when” to refer to a time.

Use “where” to refer to a
place, industry, or sector.

Use “whose” to refer to a person, company, or department.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

130

RESPOND OUT LOUD TO THE AUDIO, FILLING IN THE GAPS USING THE
PHRASES IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Relative clauses

Job interviews

Describing your achievements in detail

131

Vocabulary
BUSINESS IDIOMS

132

133

Working relationships
Phrasal verbs are commonly used to talk about
relationships with co-workers and clients. It is important
to use the correct word order with phrasal verbs.

New language Three-word phrasal verbs
Vocabulary Social media
New skill Social networking

KEY LANGUAGE THREE-WORD PHRASAL VERBS
Three-word phrasal verbs consist
of a verb and two particles.
The particles usually change
the meaning of the verb.

VERB AND PARTICLES

FURTHER EXAMPLES THREE-WORD PHRASAL VERBS

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE PHRASAL VERBS

134

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

135

KEY LANGUAGE SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS WITH PRONOUNS
Some phrasal verbs are separable, which means the particle does not have to sit
immediately after the verb. If the object of the sentence with a separable phrasal
verb is a pronoun, it must go between the verb and the particle.

FURTHER EXAMPLES SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS WITH PRONOUNS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING OBJECT PRONOUNS

136

TIP

All three-word
phrasal verbs are
inseparable.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT
LOUD, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

Leah and Tariq are
discussing how to
market their products
on social media.

CHECKLIST
Three-word phrasal verbs

Social media

Social networking

137

Career outcomes
To talk about possible future events, such as career
development and promotion, use “will,” “might,” and
“won’t” to say how likely something is to happen.

New language Modal verbs for possibility
Vocabulary Career development
New skill Talking about the future

KEY LANGUAGE “WILL” AND “MIGHT”
Use “will” when something is certain or very likely to
happen. Use “might” for things that are possible.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “WILL,” “MIGHT,” AND “MAY”
This is an alternative to “might.”

This means something is
impossible or very unlikely.

MATCH THE PAIRS OF SENTENCES

138

This means something is
possible but not certain.

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

READ THE PERFORMANCE REVIEW AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

139

KEY LANGUAGE “DEFINITELY” AND “PROBABLY”
Use “definitely” with “will” and
“won’t” to talk about things
that are certain, and “probably”
for things that are likely.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
CORRECTING THE ERRORS

140

TIP

“Definitely” and
“probably” are
placed after “will” in
a sentence, but
before “won’t.”

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT
LOUD, PUTTING THE MODIFIER
IN THE CORRECT PLACE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MATCH THE IMAGES TO
THE CORRECT PHRASES

CHECKLIST
Modal verbs for possibility

Career development

Talking about the future

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 30–35
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

“A” AND “THE”
DEFINITE AND ZERO ARTICLES
FOR PLURALS
DEPENDENT PREPOSITIONS

RELATIVE CLAUSES

THREE-WORD PHRASAL VERBS

PHRASAL VERBS WITH PRONOUNS

TALKING ABOUT POSSIBILITIES

141

Vocabulary
OFFICE AND PRESENTATION EQUIPMENT

142

PRESENTING
DATA

143

Structuring a presentation
When you are presenting to an audience, it is important
to structure your talk in a way that is clear and easy to
understand. Certain set phrases can help you do this.

New language Signposting language
Vocabulary Presentation equipment
New skill Structuring a presentation

KEY LANGUAGE SIGNPOSTING LANGUAGE
You can signal (or “signpost”) what you are going
to talk about with particular phrases. Using these
lets your audience know what to expect.

Giving the audience the
format of the talk.

Starting a new
section.

144

Introducing the
topic of the talk.

Summarizing the
content of the talk.

Ending one section.

Asking the audience
for questions.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
The owner of a café is
presenting proposals for
the future to the investors.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

145

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE EQUIPMENT

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS
WITH THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

146

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE SENTENCES
IN THE ORDER YOU HEAR THEM

CHECKLIST
Signposting language

Presentation equipment

Structuring a presentation

147

Developing an argument
When you are giving a presentation, there are several
key phrases you can use to develop your argument, and
make your audience aware of what is coming.

New language Useful presentation language
Vocabulary Presentations
New skill Developing an argument

KEY LANGUAGE GENERALIZING, MAKING EXCEPTIONS, AND FOCUSING
If you have specific figures, it may be useful to give them.
However, you may need to use more general terms if you
do not have the figures or you want to avoid repetition.

It is helpful to make it clear when you are
making a general point.

There are phrases you can use to
highlight exceptions to the general rule.

After making general statements, you may
want to focus on a particular area in detail.

WRITE THE PHRASES FROM THE PANEL IN THE CORRECT CATEGORIES

GENERALIZING

148

EXCEPTIONS

FOCUSING

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
A brand manager is talking
to an audience about a new
range of products.

149

KEY LANGUAGE GIVING EXAMPLES
When you have focused your argument, you may
want to give examples to explain your point.
“For instance” can go at the beginning, middle, or (less commonly) end of a sentence.

You can also say “As an illustration…” at the start of a sentence.

“Such as” comes in the middle of a sentence
before the noun it is illustrating.

KEY LANGUAGE COUNTERING THE GENERAL OPINION
To counter something
that has been stated as,
or is understood as, the
general opinion there
are a number of set
phrases you can use.

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER
THE QUESTIONS

150

These phrases tend to go at
the beginning of sentences.

RESPOND OUT LOUD TO THE AUDIO, FILLING IN THE GAPS USING THE
WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Useful presentation language

Presentations

Developing an argument

151

Pitching a product
When describing a product to a potential client, it
is useful to compare the product with competitors
using comparative and superlative adjectives.

New language Comparatives and superlatives
Vocabulary Product marketing
New skill Comparing products

KEY LANGUAGE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES
Regular comparative
adjectives are formed
by adding “-er” to the
adjective. Regular
superlatives are formed by
adding “the” before and
“-est” after the adjective.

Comparative

Superlative

For some two-syllable
adjectives, and all
adjectives with more than
two syllables, add “more”
before the adjective to
make the comparative,
and “the most” to make
the superlative.

FURTHER EXAMPLES COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES

152

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MATCH THE PRODUCTS TO THE PHRASES
THAT DESCRIBE THEM

153

KEY LANGUAGE “AS… AS” COMPARISONS
English uses “as… as” with an
adjective to compare things
that are similar.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “AS… AS” COMPARISONS
Use “just as… as” to emphasize the
similarity between two things.

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

154

Use “not as… as” to contrast
things that are different.

READ THE ADVERTISEMENT AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE, THEN SAY
THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Comparatives and superlatives

Product marketing

Comparing products

155

Talking about facts and figures
When you are making a presentation or writing a
report, it is important to describe changes and
trends with precise language that sounds natural.

New language Collocations
Vocabulary Business trends
New skill Describing facts and figures

KEY LANGUAGE DESCRIBING TRENDS WITH COLLOCATIONS
You can use a verb modified with an adverb to describe the speed or size of a change.
Some of these pairings are collocations that sound “right” to fluent speakers.
VERB

ADVERB

Some collocations to describe trends
are adjectives followed by a noun.
ADJECTIVE

156

NOUN

TIP

Collocations are often
formed of two words,
but can contain more.
Using them will make
you a more fluent
English speaker.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE TRENDS IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DESCRIBED

MATCH THE PAIRS OF SENTENCES THAT MEAN THE SAME THING

157

VOCABULARY DESCRIBING
FIGURES USING PREPOSITIONS

READ THE REPORT AND ANSWER
THE QUESTIONS

158

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS USING THE
WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Collocations

Business trends

Describing facts and figures

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 36–40
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

STRUCTURING A PRESENTATION
GENERALIZING, MAKING
EXCEPTIONS, AND FOCUSING
GIVING EXAMPLES AND COUNTERING
PITCHING A PRODUCT WITH
COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES
DESCRIBING TRENDS
DESCRIBING FIGURES USING
PREPOSITIONS

159

Plans and suggestions
English uses modal verbs to make suggestions, and
indirect questions or the passive voice to politely request
information or point out a mistake.

New language Indirect questions
Vocabulary Business negotiations
New skill Negotiating politely

KEY LANGUAGE NEGOTIATION AND SUGGESTIONS
One way of making language for negotiation more polite
and indirect is to use modal verbs or the past continuous.
Use “Would you mind” with a
gerund to make polite requests.

“Might” can also be used
to discuss conditions.

The past continuous is used
for politeness here.

160

Use “could” with the base form
of a verb to make suggestions.

Polite alternative to
“Can you…?”

Use this to politely
agree to a suggestion.

MARK THE MOST POLITE
REPLY TO EACH STATEMENT

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Kevin is negotiating
with Jamila, whose
catering company
might provide
refreshments
for an event.

161

KEY LANGUAGE INDIRECT QUESTIONS
Indirect questions start with a polite opening
phrase. Unlike with direct questions, the verb
sits after the subject in indirect questions.

Indirect questions start with a polite opening phrase.

Direct questions and indirect questions
follow a different word order.

FURTHER EXAMPLES INDIRECT QUESTIONS
If the opening phrase is “Could you tell me,” the
indirect question ends with a question mark.

If the opening phrase is “I was wondering,” the
indirect question ends with a period (full stop).

Indirect questions leave
out the auxiliary verb “do.”

HOW TO FORM INDIRECT QUESTIONS
OPENING PHRASE

You can also use
“I was wondering.”

162

QUESTION WORD

SUBJECT

VERB

In indirect questions, the verb follows the subject.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

163

KEY LANGUAGE THE PASSIVE VOICE
In formal or written negotiations or complaints, you can use
the passive voice to be polite and avoid sounding too critical.

Complaints using the passive voice often
start with a polite opening phrase.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING THE PASSIVE VOICE

164

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

READ THE EMAIL AND ANSWER
THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Indirect questions

Business negotiations

Negotiating politely

165

Emphasizing your opinion
There are many English phrases for politely emphasizing
your point of view. These are useful when you are
dealing with disagreement in the workplace.

New language Discourse markers for emphasis
Vocabulary Workplace disagreement
New skill Emphasizing your opinion

KEY LANGUAGE DISCOURSE MARKERS FOR EMPHASIS
There are a variety of
words and phrases
that you can use to
make your position
more emphatic
without being rude.

FURTHER EXAMPLES DISCOURSE MARKERS FOR EMPHASIS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

166

LISTEN TO THE NEGOTIATION, THEN NUMBER THE
SENTENCES IN THE ORDER YOU HEAR THEM

RESPOND OUT LOUD TO THE AUDIO, FILLING IN THE GAPS USING THE
WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Discourse markers for emphasis

Workplace disagreement

Emphasizing your opinion

167

Discussing conditions
English often uses the first and second conditionals for
negotiating with clients and co-workers, and the zero
conditional to talk about general truths.

New language Conditionals
Vocabulary Negotiating and bargaining
New skill Discussing possibilities

KEY LANGUAGE THE SECOND CONDITIONAL
The second conditional can be used to discuss contract details. It
describes the result of a possible (but uncertain or unlikely) action.

Action

Result

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE SECOND CONDITIONAL

The “if ” clause can come in the middle
of a second conditional sentence.

The second conditional can use
“could” instead of “would.”

HOW TO FORM THE SECOND CONDITIONAL
Use the past simple to describe the hypothetical action, and
“would” with the base verb to describe the result of the action.
“IF”

PAST SIMPLE

OBJECT

The past simple describes
the hypothetical action.

168

“WOULD” + BASE VERB

OBJECT

Use “would” with the base verb to
describe the result of the action.

REWRITE THE SECOND CONDITIONAL SENTENCES, CORRECTING
THE ERRORS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

COMPLETE THESE SECOND
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES,
SAYING THEM OUT LOUD

Diane is negotiating a better price
for her office supplies with Josef,
an office stationery salesman.

169

KEY LANGUAGE ZERO AND FIRST CONDITIONALS
THE ZERO CONDITIONAL

Use the zero conditional to talk about things that
are generally true. The present simple describes
the action and the result.
PRESENT SIMPLE

PRESENT SIMPLE

Result

Action

THE FIRST CONDITIONAL

The first conditional uses the present simple
and the future with “will” to talk about the
likely results of things that might happen.
PRESENT SIMPLE

Action

FUTURE WITH “WILL”

Result

FURTHER EXAMPLES ZERO AND FIRST CONDITIONALS
Zero conditional sentences can
use “when” instead of “if.”

170

Conditional sentences can
start with the result clause.

REWRITE THE ZERO CONDITIONAL SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN
THE CORRECT ORDER

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE CORRECT TENSES TO
FORM FIRST CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

171

KEY LANGUAGE ZERO, FIRST, AND SECOND CONDITIONALS OVERVIEW
ZERO CONDITIONAL

Use the zero conditional to talk about general
truths and things that always happen.

FIRST CONDITIONAL

Use the first conditional to talk about things
that are likely to happen.

SECOND CONDITIONAL

Use the second conditional to talk about things
that are unlikely to happen, but are still possible.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

172

READ THE WEB PAGE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

CHECKLIST
Conditionals

Negotiating and bargaining

Discussing possibilities

173

Discussing problems
English uses the third conditional to talk about an unreal
past, or events that did not happen. This is useful for
talking about workplace mistakes.

New language Third conditional
Vocabulary Workplace mistakes
New skill Talking about past mistakes

KEY LANGUAGE THE THIRD CONDITIONAL
In third conditional sentences, the
past perfect describes something
that did not happen, and the
“would” clause describes the
unreal result.

Past perfect

Past participle

HOW TO FORM THE THIRD CONDITIONAL
“IF”

PAST PERFECT

REST OF CLAUSE

“WOULD” + “HAVE”
+ PAST PARTICIPLE

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE THIRD CONDITIONAL
Third conditional sentences
can start with the result.

174

The third conditional can
use the short form of “had.”

REST OF
SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE CORRECT FORMS TO
MAKE THIRD CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHICH THINGS ACTUALLY HAPPENED

175

KEY LANGUAGE FIRST CONDITIONAL WITH “UNLESS”
You can use “unless” instead of “if…not” in
first conditional sentences. In sentences
with “unless,” the result only happens if
the action does not take place.

Result

Action

FURTHER EXAMPLES FIRST CONDITIONAL WITH “UNLESS”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING “UNLESS”

176

READ THE REPORT AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Third conditional

Workplace mistakes

Talking about past mistakes

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 41–44
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

INDIRECT QUESTIONS

THE PASSIVE VOICE FOR POLITENESS

EMPHASIZING YOUR OPINION

SECOND CONDITIONAL

THIRD CONDITIONAL

FIRST CONDITIONAL WITH “UNLESS”

177

Answers

178

179

1 Present 2 Future
3 Future 4 Present

Model Answers

180

OPINION: awesome, awful
SIZE: enormous, tiny
AGE: modern, out-dated
COLOR: green, red
NATIONALITY: Swiss, Indian
MATERIAL: wooden, fabric
EXTREME:
awful, fantastic, tiny, disgusting,
enormous
ABSOLUTE:
unique, impossible, right, perfect, wrong
CLASSIFYING:
organic, digital, industrial, electronic,
chemical

181

1 No 2 Yes 3 Yes 4 Yes

1 Future
2 Past
3 Future
4 Past
5 Future

182

Model Answers

Model Answers

183

Model Answers

184

185

186

GENERALIZING: on the whole, generally,
in general, by and large
EXCEPTIONS: except for, with the
exception of, aside from, excepting
FOCUSING: if we focus on, if we home in
on, concentrating on, focusing on

187

188

Model Answers

Note: All answers can also be written in
contracted form.

Note: All answers can also use the short
form of the future with “will.”

189

Index
Subjects are indexed by unit number.
Entries in bold indicate the unit with the
most information.

A

“a,” article 30
abilities 20, 21
absolute adjectives 17
achievements 32
“actually” 38, 42
adjectives 15, 39, 40
for advertising and marketing 17, 18
adverbs 17, 18, 40
advertising 16, 18
advice 19
“afraid” 41
“all” 27
“also” 22
“although” 22
ambitions see careers
“an” 30
apologies 8
applications, job 30, 31
“apply” 31
arguments, developing 38
arrangements see plans
articles 30
“as... as” comparisons 39
“attending” 11

B

bargaining see negotiation
base form (verbs) 5, 19, 43
“be” 4, 11
“been” 8
“between” 40
branding 18
“by” 14, 40

C

“can”, “cannot,” and “can’t” 21
careers 32, 35
changes, talking about 4
changes in meaning 23, 31
checking information 28
classifying adjectives 17

190

clients 11, 34
closed questions 26
colleagues 2, 5, 10
working relationships 34
collocations 40
comma use, in emails 10
communication 9, 10
companies 3, 30
comparative adjectives 39
comparisons 22
complaints 8, 41
conditionals 43, 44
conferences 1
“consequently” 22
contacts 43
continuous tenses 1, 2, 11, 14
contrasts 22
conversational English 2, 4
see also spoken English
corporate entertainment 23
“could” 19, 21, 43
for polite requests 5, 8
in passive voice 14
in polite English 41
“could not” and “couldn’t” 21
countable nouns 27
countering an opinion 38
cover letters 31
co-workers see colleagues

D

defining relative clauses 32
definite article 30
“definitely” 35
delegation 5
departments 3, 30
dependent prepositions 31
descriptions, job 3, 30
“did” 2
“didn’t he / she” 28
directions see signposting language
direct questions 26
disagreements, in the workplace 42
discourse markers 22, 42
“do” 26

E

echo questions 28
“-ed” word endings 2
emails 10
emphasis 11, 18, 42
“enough” 18

“entertaining” 23
“equally” 22
equipment, in the workplace 36, 37
“-er” word endings 39
“-est” word endings 39
etiquette see polite English
events planning 23
examples, giving, in presentations 38
exceptions, making 38
explanations 8, 14, 41
expressing ideas 22
extreme adjectives 17

F

fact adjectives 15
facts, talking about 40
“fairly” 17
“fantastic” 17
“few” 27
figures, talking about 40
“fill out” 12
finance 6
first conditional 43
focusing, in arguments 38
“for instance” 38
formal English 5, 22, 41
in report writing 7
“from” 40
future tenses 11, 21
future with “might” 35
future with “will” 8, 14, 35, 43

G

generalizing 38
gerunds 19, 23
“get” 4, 26, 34
giving advice 19
“good” 17
gradable adjectives 17
greetings 1

HI

“had” 7, 44
“have” and “has” 2, 5, 8, 26
“heard about / from” 31
“hello” 10
“hoping” 11, 41
“however” 22, 38
idioms 33
“if ” 26, 43

indirect questions 41
industries 29
infinitives 4, 23
informal English 10, 12, 22
“-ing” word endings 2, 8
see also gerunds
“initial” 7
inseparable phrasal verbs 34
intensifiers 18
introductions 1
“investigate” 8

JL

jobs
applications 30, 31
careers 32, 35
descriptions 3, 30
interviews 32
languages 30
“little” 27
“looking” 34

M

“make” 26
management 20
manufacturing 14
marketing 16, 17, 39
“may” and “may not” 35
meaning, changes in 23, 31
“meet,” “met,” and “meeting” 1, 23
meetings 24, 25, 27
“might” 35, 41
mistakes 41, 44
see also problems, in the workplace
modal verbs 5, 19, 21
for possibility 35
in passive voice 14
see also “could”; “would”
money 6
“more” 39
“most” 39
“must” 5, 14, 19

N

names, company 30
natural speech 40
negatives 4, 5, 39
modal verbs 19
question tags 28
negotiation 41, 43

networking 1, 34
“no” 26
non-defining relative clauses 32
non-gradable adjectives 17
non-grading adverbs 17
nouns 32, 40

O

objects 23
open questions 26
opinions 15, 38, 42
organization structures 3
“ought to” 19

P

“pardon” 28
particles 34
passive voice 7, 14, 41
past continuous 2, 11, 14
past experiences 2
past participle 14
past perfect 7, 14, 44
past simple 2, 7, 43
passive 14
reported speech in 25
past tense 2, 21, 44
reported speech in 25
phone calls 8
phrasal verbs 12, 34
pitching products 39
place names 30
place references 25
plans 10, 11, 12, 41
planning events 23
plural forms 27, 30
polite English 2, 5, 11
checking information 28
in negotiation 41
introductions 1
possibilities 43
potential 21
prepositions 12, 31, 40
presentations 36, 37, 38
present continuous 1, 11, 14
present perfect 2, 8, 14
“presents” 7
present simple 1, 14, 43
present tense 21, 25
pressure, in the workplace 19
“pretty” 17
previous jobs 32
“principle” 7

“probably” 35
problems, in the workplace 8, 44
processes, describing 14
production 13
products 15, 17, 39
professional attributes 29
pronouns 25, 27

Q

quantities 27
questions 2, 4, 7
for advice 19
in presentations 37
open and closed questions 26
question tags 28
reported questions 26
subject 28

R

“really” 17
relationships, in the workplace 34
relative clauses 32
relative pronouns 32
repeating what was said 25, 26
repetition, for checking information 28
reported quantities 27
reported questions 26
reported speech 25
“reported to” 31
reports, writing 7
“results” 22
“review” 7
“rise in / of ” 31
roles, descriptions of 3
routines 14
“run out” 12

S

“say” and “said” 25
schedules 11
second conditional 43
separable phrasal verbs 12, 34
“should” 19
sign-offs, in emails 10
signposting language 37
similarities see comparisons
singular forms 30
skills 20, 21
small talk see conversational English
“so” 18

191

social media 34
“sorry” 8
see also apologies
spoken English 12, 21
“states” 7
subject questions 28
“such” 18
suggestions 19, 41
superlative adjectives 39

T

team building 22
technology 9
telephone calls 8
“tell” 25
“that” 25, 32
“the” 30
third conditional 44
three-word phrasal verbs 34
time markers 11, 25
“to” 4, 23
“too” 18, 22
“trained in” 31
trends 40

UV

uncountable nouns 27
“unless” 44
“used to” 4
verbs 26, 40, 41
infinitives 4, 23
patterns 23
phrasal verbs 12, 34
see also gerunds; “-ing” word endings

W

“work” and “worked” 2, 31
working relationships 34
“would” 5, 21, 43
“would you mind” 41
written English 12, 41
cover letters 31
reports 7

YZ

“yes” 26
zero article 30
zero conditional 43

“we” 5
“what” 28
“what about” 19
“when” 32, 43
“where” 32
“whether” 26
“which” 32
“who” 28, 32
“whose” 32
“will,” future with 8, 14, 35, 43
“wondering” 11, 41
word order 7, 12, 15, 26

Acknowledgments
The publisher would like to thank:
Amy Child, Dominic Clifford, Devika
Khosla, and Priyansha Tuli for design
assistance; Dominic Clifford and Hansa
Babra for additional illustrations; Sam
Atkinson, Vineetha Mokkil, Antara
Moitra, Margaret Parrish, Nisha Shaw,
and Rohan Sinha for editorial assistance;

192

Elizabeth Wise for indexing; Jo Kent for
additional text; Scarlett O’Hara, Georgina
Palffy, and Helen Ridge for proofreading;
Christine Stroyan for project
management; ID Audio for audio
recording and production; David Almond,
Gillian Reid, and Jacqueline StreetElkayam for production assistance.

DK would like to thank the following
for their kind permission to use
their photographs:
71 Fotolia: Maksym Dykha (bottom right).
150 Alamy: MBI (bottom right).
All other images are copyright DK.
For more information, please visit
www.dkimages.com.