Головна English for Everyone - Level 2 Beginner - Course Book

English for Everyone - Level 2 Beginner - Course Book

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Work your way up with the ultimate self-study course that is easy to use and quick to learn. The Level 2 beginner's book guarantees an engaging and entertaining experience for adults learning English as a foreign language. Beginners who already know the basics of English, this one is for you. Moving on from Level 1, this brilliant book goes into more depth and detail, including talking about yourself and your feelings, routines, choices, past events, future plans, achievements, and ambitions. Eye-catching illustrations and step-by-step explanations keep content simple and straightforward for easy learning. Packed with listening, speaking, reading, and writing exercises presented in bite-sized modules, you can follow the book from start to finish or dip in and out to boost your language skills, expand your vocabulary, and get to grips with grammar. Level 2 builds your confidence and knowledge on the way to advanced English. English for Everyone Level 2 Beginner Course Book covers the major global English-language exams, including TOEFL and IELTS.

File: American Edition, partly with OCR

Рік:
2016
Видавництво:
DK, Dorling Kindersley
Мова:
english
Сторінки:
184
ISBN 13:
9781465451835
Серії:
English for Everyone
Файл:
PDF, 46,48 MB

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4 comments
 
LAMINE MANSOUR
Dear
thank you for your intersting books
I intersting to learen English please make the links for aoudio books
regards
Lamine mansour
20 October 2020 (07:02) 
Mr Fernando
Thank you so much for these books.
23 May 2021 (14:48) 
Franky
Thanks a lot. I really really love this site.
06 July 2021 (16:31) 
Andreas
It's just wonderful. God bless you !
22 September 2021 (10:51) 

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Author
Rachel Harding has a background in English-language teaching
and is now a full-time author of English-language learning materials.
She has written for major English-language publishers including
Oxford University Press.

Course consultant
Tim Bowen has taught English and trained teachers in more than 30
countries worldwide. He is the co-author of works on pronunciation
teaching and language-teaching methodology, and author of
numerous books for English-language teachers. He is currently a
freelance materials writer, editor, and translator. He is a member
of the Chartered Institute of Linguists.

Language consultant
Professor Susan Barduhn is an experienced English-language
teacher, teacher trainer, and author, who has contributed to
numerous publications. In addition to directing English-language
courses in at least four different continents, she has been President
of the International Association of Teachers of English as
a Foreign Language, and an adviser to the British Council
and the US State Department. She is currently a Professor
at the School for International Training in Vermont, USA.

ENGLISH
FO R E V E RYO N E
COURSE BOOK
LEVEL
BEGINNER

Contents
US Editors Allison Singer, Jenny Siklos
Editors Gareth Clark, Lisa Gillespie, Andrew Kerr-Jarrett
Art Editors Chrissy Barnard, Ray Bryant
Senior Art Editor Sharon Spencer
Editorial Assistants Jessica Cawthra, Sarah Edwards
Illustrators Edwood Burn, Denise Joos, Michael Parkin,
Jemma Westing
Audio Producer Liz Hammond
Managing Editor Daniel Mills
Managing Art Editor Anna Hall
Project Manager Christine Stroyan
Jacket Designer Natalie Godwin
Jacket Editor Claire Gell
Jacket Design Development Manager Sophia MTT
Producer, Pre-Production Luca Frassinetti
Producer Mary Slater
Publisher Andrew Macintyre
Art Director Karen Self
Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf
DK India
Jacket Designer Surabhi Wadhwa
Managing Jackets Editor Saloni Singh
Senior DTP Designer Harish Aggarwal
First American Edition, 2016
Published in the United States by DK Publishing
3; 45 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014
Copyright © 2016 Dorling Kindersley Limited
DK, a Division of Penguin Random House LLC
16 17 18 19 20 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
001–292811–Jun/2016
All rights reserved.
Without limiting the rights under the copyright reserved above, no
part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced
into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means
(electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise),
without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.
Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited.
A catalog record for this book
is available from the Library of Congress.
ISBN 978-1-4654-5183-5
DK books are available at special discounts when purchased
in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or
educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special
Markets, 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014
SpecialSales@dk.com
Printed and bound in China
All images © Dorling Kindersley Limited
For further information see: www.dkimages.com

How the course works

Talking about yourself

8

12

New language Using “to be”
Vocabulary Names, jobs, and family
New skill Talking about yourself

Talking about routines

16

New language The present simple
Vocabulary Routines and pastimes
New skill Talking about routines

Today I’m wearing…

20

New language The present continuous
Vocabulary Clothes and activities
New skill Talking about what’s happening now

What’s happening?

24

New language Present continuous questions
Vocabulary Activities and gadgets
New skill Asking about the present

Types of verbs

28

New language Action and state verbs
Vocabulary Activities
New skill Using state verbs

A WORLD OF IDEAS:
SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW
www.dk.com

Vocabulary Feelings and moods

30

How are you feeling?

32

New language “Feeling” and emotions
Vocabulary Adjectives of emotions
New skill Talking about your feelings

Vocabulary Transportation

Routines and exceptions

What’s the matter?

36

38

42

44

New language Health complaints
Vocabulary Body parts and pain phrases
New skill Saying what’s wrong

Talking about extremes

46

What’s the weather like?

48

New language Weather descriptions
Vocabulary Temperature words
New skill Talking about the weather

52

58

New language Superlative adjectives
Vocabulary Animals, facts, and places
New skill Talking about extremes

Vocabulary Geographical features

62

Making choices

64

New language “Which” and “what”
Vocabulary Geographical words
New skill Asking multiple-choice questions

Using large numbers

Vocabulary Weather

Vocabulary Travel

54

New language Comparative adjectives
Vocabulary Travel and countries
New skill Comparing things

New language Exceptions
Vocabulary Time markers
New skill Contrasting routines and exceptions

Vocabulary The body

Making comparisons

68

New language Large numbers
Vocabulary Thousands and millions
New skill Talking about large amounts

Vocabulary The calendar

70

Talking about dates

72

New language Dates, “was born,” “ago”
Vocabulary Numbers, months, and years
New skill Talking about dates

Talking about the past

74

New language The past simple of “to be”
Vocabulary Jobs, town, and life events
New skill Talking about past states

Past events

78

Irregular past verbs

82

Telling a story

84

86

New language Past simple questions
Vocabulary Travel and activities
New skill Talking about vacations

Someone, anyone, everyone

108

Making conversation

110

New language Short questions
Vocabulary Question words
New skill Asking short questions

Vocabulary Going out

112

92

Future arrangements

114

94

New language Future with present continuous
Vocabulary Excuses
New skill Talking about future arrangements

New language “About,” opinions
Vocabulary Opinions
New skill Describing media and culture

Asking about the past

104

New language Indefinite pronouns
Vocabulary Office words
New skill Talking about people in general

New language Irregular verbs in the past simple
Vocabulary Sequence words
New skill Describing the past

Vocabulary Tools and implements

Types of questions
New language Subject and object questions
Vocabulary Workplace words
New skill Asking different kinds of question

New language Using “could” in the past simple
Vocabulary Abilities and pastimes
New skill Talking about past abilities

Vocabulary Entertainment

102

New language Interview responses
Vocabulary Job words and phrases
New skill Dealing with job applications

New language Regular verbs in the past simple
Vocabulary Pastimes and life events
New skill Talking about your past

Past abilities

Applying for a job

Plans and intentions

98

New language Future tense
Vocabulary Time words and phrases
New skill Talking about your plans

118

What’s going to happen

122

New language The future with “going to”
Vocabulary Prediction verbs
New skill Predicting future events

Vocabulary Animals

126

Making predictions

128

New language The future with “will”
Vocabulary Prediction words
New skill Saying what you think will happen

Making quick decisions

New language “Could” for suggestions
Vocabulary Advice
New skill Making suggestions

150

Events in your life

154

Events in your year

158

New language “Yet” and “already”
Vocabulary Routines and chores
New skill Talking about the recent past

Eating out

136

162

New language Restaurant phrases
Vocabulary Food preparation
New skill Ordering a meal in a restaurant

Achievements and ambitions

140

New language “Should”
Vocabulary Advice
New skill Giving advice

Making suggestions

Around the house
New language The present perfect
Vocabulary Household chores
New skill Talking about the recent past

132

New language Using “might”
Vocabulary Activities, food, and pastimes
New skill Talking about future possibilities

Giving advice

148

New language The present perfect
Vocabulary Adventure sports
New skill Talking about past events

New language Quick decisions with “will”
Vocabulary Decision words
New skill Talking about future actions

Future possibilities

Vocabulary Household chores

164

New language Desires and plans
Vocabulary Travel and adventure sports
New skill Talking about your achievements

144

Answers

168

Index

181

How the course works
English for Everyone is designed for people who want to teach
themselves the English language. Like all language courses, it
covers the core skills: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation,
listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Unlike in other courses,
the skills are taught and practiced as
Irregular past verbs
visually as possible, using images and
graphics to help you understand and
remember. The best way to learn is to
work through the book in order, making
full use of the audio available on the
website and app. Turn to the practice
book at the end of each unit to reinforce
your learning with additional exercises.
In the past simple, some verbs are irregular. Their past
simple forms are not formed using the normal rules, and
sometimes look very different from the infinitive forms.

Irregular past verbs
In the past simple, some verbs are irregular. Their past
simple forms are not formed using the normal rules, and
sometimes look very different from the infinitive forms.

maTch The verbs To
TheIr pasT forms

fill in the gaps by putting the verbs in the past simple

New language Irregular verbs in the past simple
Vocabulary Sequence words
New skill Describing the past

fILL IN The Gaps UsING
The WorDs IN The paNeL

MATCH THE PAST SIMPLE FORMS OF THE VERBS TO THEIR BASE FORMS

New language Irregular verbs in the past simple
Vocabulary Sequence words
New skill Describing the past

KEY LANGUAGE IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE
“Go” is the present simple.

To make the negative,
use “didn’t” with the base form.

“Went” is the past simple of “go.”

80

HOW TO FORM IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE

Verbs in the
past simple do
not change with
the subject.

SUBJECT

NEGATIVE

Use “did not” or “didn’t”
to make the negative.

81

READ THE ARTICLE AND NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER THEY
ARE DESCRIBED

This is the past simple of “go.”

SUBJECT

VERB

080-083_Unit26_Beg2_Describing_the_past.indd 80

22/01/16 10:18 pm 080-083_Unit26_Beg2_Describing_the_past.indd 81

PRACTICE BOOK
22/01/16 6:52 pm

VERB

Use the base form of the
main verb in the negative.

FURTHER EXAMPLES IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE

86

086-091_Beg2_Unit_26_Irregular_past_verbs.indd 86

Unit number The book is divided
into units. The unit number helps
you keep track of your progress.

87

26/01/2016 10:27 086-091_Beg2_Unit_26_Irregular_past_verbs.indd 87

Modules Each unit is broken down
into modules, which should be done
in order. You can take a break from
learning after completing any module.

Learning points Every unit
begins with a summary of
the key learning points.

Future arrangements
You can use the present continuous to talk about
things that are happening now. You can also use it
to talk about arrangements for the future.

COURSE BOOK

26/01/2016 10:27

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

New language Future with present continuous
Vocabulary Excuses
New skill Talking about future arrangements

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT CONTINUOUS WITH FUTURE EVENTS

Language learning
Modules with colored
backgrounds teach new
vocabulary and grammar.
Study these carefully
before moving on to
the exercises.

Use time phrases
to show whether a
verb in the present
continuous refers
to the present
or the future.

“At the moment”
refers to the present.

Time clause “tomorrow”
refers to the future.

Present continuous refers to
Dave’s present activity.

Present continuous
refers to a future event
that is planned.

FURTHER EXAMPLES PRESENT CONTINUOUS WITH FUTURE EVENTS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES
IN THE ORDER YOU HEAR THEM
You can use the time word or phrase
at the start or end of a clause.

KEY LANGUAGE “ON / IN” WITH DAYS, MONTHS, AND DATES
Use the preposition “on” in front of days of the week
and specific dates. Use “in” with months and years.

114

115

114-117_EFE_Beg2_Unit_35_Future_Arrangements.indd 114

FREE AUDIO
website and app
www.dkefe.com
8

26/01/2016 10:27 114-117_EFE_Beg2_Unit_35_Future_Arrangements.indd 115

Audio support Most modules
have supporting audio
recordings of native English
speakers to help you improve
your speaking and listening skills.

Exercises Modules with
white backgrounds
contain exercises that help
you practice your new
skills to reinforce learning.

26/01/2016 17:17

Language modules
New language points are taught in carefully graded stages, starting with a simple
explanation of when they are used, then offering further examples of common
usage, and a detailed breakdown of how key constructions are formed.

Around the house

Module number Every module
is identified with a unique number,
You can use the present perfect form of a verb to talk
so you can track your progress and
about something that has happened in the past and
easily locate any related audio.
has consequences in the present.

Module heading The teaching
language The present perfect
topic New
appears
here, along with
Vocabulary Household chores
a brief introduction.

New skill Talking about the recent past

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT PERFECT
Use the present perfect to describe something that has happened
in the past and which has a result in the present moment.
“Just” means that the action
has happened recently.

TIP

Form regular past
participles in the same
way that you form the past
simple, by adding “ed”
to the base form
of the verb.

“Have” or “has” go
after the subject in
the prefesent perfect.

Sample language New language points
are introduced in context. Colored
highlights make new constructions easy
to spot, and annotations explain them.

The main verb goes in
its past participle form.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT PERFECT

Graphic guide Clear, simple visuals help
to explain the meaning of new language
forms and when to use them, and also
act as an aid to learning and recall.

Supporting audio This symbol
indicates that the model sentences
featured in the module are available
as audio recordings.

HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT PERFECT
SUBJECT + “HAVE” / “HAS”

“JUST”

PAST PARTICIPLE

OBJECT

Formation guide Visual guides
break down English grammar into its
simplest parts, showing you how to
recreate even complex formations.

To make the present perfect, use “have” or
“has” with the past participle of the verb.

150

Vocabulary
TRAVEL

150-153_EFE_Beg2_Unit_45_Around_the_house.indd 150

22/01/2016 10:55

Vocabulary Throughout the book,
vocabulary modules list the most
common and useful English words
and phrases, with visual cues to help
you remember them.

Write-on lines You are
encouraged to write your own
translations of English words to
create your own reference pages.
52

052_053_292811_EFE_Unit_14_VOCAB_Holiday.indd 52

22/01/2016 10:52

9

Practice modules
GRAMMAR
Each exercise is carefully graded to drill
Apply new language rules
and test the language taught in the
in different contexts.
corresponding course book units.
Working through the exercises alongside
READING
Examine target language
the course book will help you remember
in real-life English contexts.
what you have learned and become
more fluent. Every exercise is introduced
LISTENING
with a symbol to indicate which skill is
Test your understanding
CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORD
IN EACH SENTENCE
being practiced.
of spoken
English.

Module number Every module
is identified with a unique
number, so you can easily locate
answers and related audio.

VOCABULARY
Cement your understanding
of key vocabulary.
SPEAKING
Compare your spoken English
to model audio recordings.

Exercise instruction Every exercise
is introduced with a brief instruction,
telling you what you need to do.

FILL IN THE GAPS WITH
“AM,” “IS,” OR “ARE”

LISTEN
TO THE AUDIO AND
READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Sample answer The first
question of each exercise is
answered for you, to help make
the task easy to understand.

Space for writing You are
encouraged to write your answers
in the book for future reference.

Speaking exercise This symbol indicates
that you should say your answers out loud,
then compare them to model recordings
included in your audio files.
SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS
USING SUPERLATIVES

Supporting graphics Visual
cues are given to help you
understand the exercises.

USE
THE CHART
TO CREATE
Supporting
audio
This symbol
shows10 CORRECT SENTENCES, THEN SAY THEM
OUT LOUD
that the answers to the exercise are
available as audio tracks. Listen to
them after completing the exercise.

Choose a
subject.

Listening exercise
This symbol indicates
that you should listen to
an audio track in order
to answer the questions
in the exercise.

10

Choose a
verb form.

Finish with a name, age,
nationality, or job.

CHECKLIST

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES
THE
SuperlativeIN
adjectives
ORDER THEY ARE DESCRIBED

Animals, facts, and places

Bea talks about her vacation in India.

012-015_Beg2_Unit_1_Talking_about_yourself.indd 13

Talking about extremes

61
25/01/2016 14:15

058-061_EFE_Beg2_Unit_16_Facts_on_world.indd 61

MATCH THE QUESTIONS
TO THE SHORT ANSWERS

13

REWRITE THE SENTENCES
AS QUESTIONS

25/01/2016 14:15

Audio
English for Everyone features extensive supporting audio materials.
You are encouraged to use them as much as you can, to improve
your understanding of spoken English, and to make your own
accent and pronunciation more natural. Each file can be played,
paused, and repeated as often as you like, until you are confident
you understand what has been said.
LISTENING EXERCISES
This symbol indicates that you should
listen to an audio track in order to
answer the questions in the exercise.

FREE AUDIO
website and app
www.dkefe.com

SUPPORTING AUDIO
This symbol indicates that extra audio
material is available for you to listen
to after completing the module.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

WRITE EACH SENTENCE
IN ITS OTHER FORM

Track your progress
A radio presenter
describes the weather
across North America.

The course is designed to make it easy to monitor your progress,
with regular summary and review modules. Answers are provided
for every exercise, so you can see how well you have understood
each teaching point.
LISTEN TO THE AUDIO
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

WRITE EACH SENTENCE
IN ITS OTHER FORM

Answers Find the
answers to every
exercise printed at
the back of the book.

A radio presenter
describes the weather
across North America.

Checklists Every unit ends with a
checklist, where you can check off
the new skills you have learned.

CHECKLIST
Weather descriptions

Temperature words

Talking about the weather

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 11-13
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

SAYING YOU’RE NOT FEELING WELL

Review modules At the end of a
group of units, you will find a more
CHECKLIST
detailed
review
TALKING
ABOUT THE
WEATHER module, summarizing
Weather
descriptions
Temperature
words
Talking about the weather
the language
you have
learned.
HEALTH PROBLEMS

GIVING THE TEMPERATURE

UNIT

Check boxes Use these boxes
to mark the skills you feel
comfortable with. Go back and
review anything you feel you
need to practice further.

TEMPERATURE PHRASES

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 11-13
NEW LANGUAGE

SAYING YOU’RE NOT FEELING WELL

HEALTH PROBLEMS

048-051_EFE_Beg2_Unit_13_Whats_the_w_like.indd 51

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

51

Exercise numbers
Match these numbers
to the unique identifier
at the top-left corner
of each exercise.
Audio This symbol
indicates that the
answers can also
be listened to.

22/01/2016 10:52

TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER

GIVING THE TEMPERATURE

TEMPERATURE PHRASES

51

048-051_EFE_Beg2_Unit_13_Whats_the_w_like.indd 51

22/01/2016 10:52

11

Talking about yourself
When you want to tell someone about yourself,
or about people and things that relate to you,
use the present simple form of “to be.”

New language Using “to be”
Vocabulary Names, jobs, and family
New skill Talking about yourself

KEY LANGUAGE “TO BE” STATEMENTS
Use the verb “to
be” to talk about
your name, age,
nationality, and job.

In conversational English, speakers often use
contractions. These are shortened versions of
pairs of words. “I am” can be shortened to “I’m.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES “TO BE” STATEMENTS

HOW TO FORM “TO BE” STATEMENTS
SUBJECT

“TO BE”

REST OF SENTENCE

“You” in English is the same
in the singular and plural.
These are pronouns. They are
the subjects of these sentences.

The verb changes with the subject.

12

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS WITH
“AM,” “IS,” OR “ARE”

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 10 CORRECT SENTENCES, THEN SAY THEM
OUT LOUD

Choose a
subject.

Choose a
verb form.

Finish with a name, age,
nationality, or job.

13

KEY LANGUAGE NEGATIVE “TO BE” STATEMENTS
To make a negative
statement, add
“not” after the verb.

FURTHER EXAMPLES NEGATIVE “TO BE” STATEMENTS
“Are not” is often
contracted to “aren’t.”

FILL IN THE GAPS TO
MAKE NEGATIVE SENTENCES

14

“Is not” is often
contracted to “isn’t.”

WRITE EACH SENTENCE
IN ITS NEGATIVE FORM

KEY LANGUAGE “TO BE” QUESTIONS
To ask a “to be”
question, put
the verb before
the subject.

In a statement, the subject comes before the verb.

In a question, the verb moves
to the start of the sentence.

The subject comes after the verb.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “TO BE” QUESTIONS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES
AS QUESTIONS

SAY THESE QUESTIONS OUT LOUD,
FILLING IN THE GAPS

CHECKLIST
Using “to be”

Names, jobs, and family

Talking about yourself

15

Talking about routines
You can use present simple statements to describe
your daily routines, pastimes, and possessions.
Use “do” to form negatives and ask questions.

New language The present simple
Vocabulary Routines and pastimes
New skill Talking about routines

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT SIMPLE
To make the
present simple,
use the base
form of the verb
(the infinitive
without “to”).

This is the base form of the verb “to eat.”

With “he,” “she,” and “it,”
add “s” to the base form.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT SIMPLE

Verbs ending “sh,” “ch,” “o,” “ss,” “x,” and
“z” take “es” in the third person singular.

The verb “have” is irregular.
Use “has” for “he,” “she,” and “it.”

HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT SIMPLE
SUBJECT

VERB

REST OF SENTENCE

With “he,” “she,” and “it,” add “s.”

16

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS USING
THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT
LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS

17

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT SIMPLE NEGATIVE
Use “do not”
before the main
verb to make the
negative. If the
subject is “he,”
“she,” or ”it,”
use “does not.”

The main verb does not change.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT SIMPLE NEGATIVE

You can contract “do
not” to “don’t” and
“does not” to “doesn’t.”

HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT SIMPLE NEGATIVE
SUBJECT

“DO / DOES” + NOT

VERB BASE FORM

REST OF SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS TO WRITE EACH SENTENCE THREE DIFFERENT WAYS

18

KEY LANGUAGE QUESTIONS WITH “DO” AND “DOES”
For most verbs other than “to be,” add “do”
or “does” to turn a statement into a question.

Use “do” in questions for
“I,” “you,” “we,” and “they.”

Use “does” in questions
for “he,” “she,” and “it.”

The main verb is
in its base form.

FURTHER EXAMPLES QUESTIONS WITH “DO” AND “DOES”

USE THE CHARTS TO CREATE 12 CORRECT SENTENCES AND SAY THEM
OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
The present simple

Routines and pastimes

Talking about routines

19

Today I’m wearing…
You can use the present continuous to describe
something that is happening now. It is often used
to describe what people are wearing, using, or doing.

New language The present continuous
Vocabulary Clothes and activities
New skill Talking about what’s happening now

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
This is the present simple.
It describes a regular action.

Use the present
continuous form
to describe what is
happening right now.

This is the present continuous. It describes
what is happening right now.

HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Use “to be” plus the present participle (this is the “-ing”
form of the verb) to form the present continuous.
SUBJECT

“TO BE”

VERB + “-ING”

REST OF SENTENCE

This is the present participle.
These follow the same spelling rules as gerunds.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

For verbs ending in “e” (such as
“use”), take off the “e” and add “ing.”

20

Remember, you
can use contractions.

For single-syllable words ending
consonant-vowel-consonant, double
the final letter before adding “ing.”

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORDS IN THE SENTENCES

FILL IN THE GAPS TO COMPLETE
THE SENTENCES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MATCH THE PORTRAITS TO THE NAMES

21

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS NEGATIVE
Make the negative of the present continuous by adding
“not” after “to be.” Don’t change the present participle.

You still use the present participle
when you make the negative.

Add “not” after “to be” to make the
negative. You can use contractions, too.

HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS NEGATIVE
SUBJECT

NEGATIVE + “TO BE”

VERB + “-ING”

REST OF SENTENCE

Use the present participle.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS NEGATIVE

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN THE SENTENCES

22

FILL IN THE GAPS WITH THE
PRESENT CONTINUOUS NEGATIVE

SAY POSITIVE AND
NEGATIVE SENTENCES BASED
ON THE IMAGES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
MARK THE CORRECT ACTIVITIES

CHECKLIST
The present continuous

Clothes and activities

Talking about what’s happening now

23

What’s happening?
You can use the present continuous
to ask about things that are happening
now, at the time of speaking.

New language Present continuous questions
Vocabulary Activities and gadgets
New skill Asking about the present

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT CONTINUOUS QUESTIONS
Use present continuous
questions to ask about
what is happening now.

“He” is the subject.

This action is taking place now.

HOW TO FORM PRESENT CONTINUOUS QUESTIONS
To make a question
in the present
continuous,
swap the subject
and “to be.” You
can also add
question words.

QUESTION WORD

“TO BE”

SUBJECT

FURTHER EXAMPLES PRESENT CONTINUOUS QUESTIONS

24

VERB + “-ING”

VOCABULARY COMMON PRESENT CONTINUOUS VERBS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND WRITE WHO’S DOING EACH ACTIVITY

MATCH THE QUESTIONS TO THE ANSWERS

25

VOCABULARY DIGITAL GADGETS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING
THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

26

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO,
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

REWRITE THE QUESTIONS, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS,
SPEAKING OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Present continuous questions

Activities and gadgets

Asking about the present

27

Types of verbs
You can use most verbs in the continuous form
to describe ongoing actions. Some verbs cannot
be used in this way. These are called “state” verbs.

New language Action and state verbs
Vocabulary Activities
New skill Using state verbs

KEY LANGUAGE ACTION AND STATE VERBS
Action verbs usually describe what people or things do. State verbs usually say how things are or how someone feels.
ACTION VERB

STATE VERB

Action verbs can be used in
simple forms and continuous forms.

State verbs are not usually
used in the continuous form.

FURTHER EXAMPLES ACTION AND STATE VERBS

FIND EIGHT VERBS IN THE GRID AND WRITE THEM UNDER THE
CORRECT HEADING
ACTION VERBS:

28

STATE VERBS:

COMMON MISTAKES STATE VERBS
It is incorrect to use state verbs in the continuous form.

You can usually only use
state verbs in the simple form.

You can’t usually use state verbs
in the continuous form.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN THE SENTENCES

CHECKLIST
Action and state verbs

Activities

Using state verbs

29

Vocabulary
FEELINGS AND MOODS

30

31

How are you feeling?
Talking about your feelings is an important part
of everyday conversation. Use the present
continuous to talk about how you’re feeling.

New language “Feeling” and emotions
Vocabulary Adjectives of emotions
New skill Talking about your feelings

TIP

KEY LANGUAGE TALKING ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS

“Feel” is a state
verb that can
be used in
continuous
forms.

You can use the verb “to be” plus “feeling”
to talk about your feelings.

Use “how” as the
question word.

You can use different
adjectives to describe
your feelings.

HOW TO FORM TALKING ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS
SUBJECT + “TO BE”

“FEELING”

FEELING ADJECTIVE

Use the verb “to be.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES TALKING ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS

32

The adjective comes at
the end of the sentence.

MATCH THE FEELINGS
TO THEIR OPPOSITES

FILL IN THE GAPS
TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

33

ANOTHER WAY TO SAY IT TALKING ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS
You can also ask how
someone is, without
using “feeling.”
Ask the question
without using the
word “feeling.”

You can show how happy
you are by using an adverb
before the adjective.

HOW TO FORM TALKING ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS
SUBJECT + “TO BE”

Use the subject
and the verb “to be.”

ADVERB

FEELING ADJECTIVE

Place these adverbs before the adjective
to emphasize the strength of your feeling.

FURTHER EXAMPLES TALKING ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, ADDING ADVERBS

34

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
“Feeling” and emotions

Adjectives of emotions

Talking about your feelings

35

Vocabulary
TRANSPORTATION

36

37

Routines and exceptions
Use the present simple to describe routines,
and the present continuous to say what you are
doing now. These tenses are often used together.

New language Exceptions
Vocabulary Time markers
New skill Contrasting routines and exceptions

KEY LANGUAGE CONTRASTING ROUTINES AND EXCEPTIONS
You can contrast a routine action with
an exception to that routine by using “but.”
The present simple describes
something you do regularly.

Adverbs of frequency help
to show the present simple
action is a routine.

Use “but” to
contrast the actions.

This is a time marker.

The present continuous
describes something
you are doing now.

HOW TO FORM CONTRASTING ROUTINES AND EXCEPTIONS
SUBJECT

ADVERB OF FREQUENCY

VERB

“BUT”

TIME MARKER

FURTHER EXAMPLES CONTRASTING ROUTINES AND EXCEPTIONS

You can put the
exception first.

38

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE CORRECT TENSES

VOCABULARY TIME MARKERS

39

READ THE MESSAGES AND FILL THE
GAPS USING THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHICH ACTIVITIES ARE EXCEPTIONS

40

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE
CORRECT TENSES

CHECKLIST
Exceptions

Time markers

Contrasting routines and exceptions

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 01–09
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

TALKING ABOUT YOURSELF
AND YOUR DAILY ROUTINE
THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

PRESENT CONTINUOUS QUESTIONS

ACTION AND STATE VERBS

TALKING ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS

ROUTINES AND EXCEPTIONS

41

Vocabulary
THE BODY

42

43

What’s the matter?
There are many different ways to say you’re sick. You often
use the negative, “not well,” to talk about general illness,
and “hurts,” “ache,” or “pain” for specific problems.

New language Health complaints
Vocabulary Body parts and pain phrases
New skill Saying what’s wrong

KEY LANGUAGE SAYING YOU’RE NOT FEELING WELL
To say what’s wrong, use the verb
“to be” with “well,” “sick,” or “ill.” You
can also use “to be” with “feeling” and
an adverb to show the problem
continues and to explain how bad it is.
Negative form.

Use verb “to be” with present continuous
to say the problem is ongoing.

Use “don’t” and “doesn’t” with
the base form of “to feel.”

“Ill” is more often used in UK English.
“Sick” is more common in US English.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES CORRECTING THE ERRORS

44

In UK English, “I’m feeling
sick” or “I feel sick” mean
you might vomit.

KEY LANGUAGE HEALTH PROBLEMS
Use “have” and “has”
with “ache,” “pain,”
and “broken” to say
what’s wrong. You can
also say which part
of the body “hurts.”

Use “have” with “broken.”

Use “in” with “pain”
to say where it hurts.

Headache is
one word.

Use a part of the
body with “hurts” to
say where the pain is.

FURTHER EXAMPLES HEALTH PROBLEMS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING
THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

You can use “got” in UK
English to say what is wrong.

MARK THE SENTENCES
THAT ARE CORRECT

CHECKLIST
Health complaints

Body parts and pain phrases

Saying what’s wrong

45

Vocabulary
WEATHER

46

WEATHER ADJECTIVES

47

What’s the weather like?
There are many ways to talk about the weather.
Use the verb “to be” with weather words and phrases
to describe the temperature and conditions.

New language Weather descriptions
Vocabulary Temperature words
New skill Talking about the weather

KEY LANGUAGE TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER
To ask about the
weather, say: “What’s
the weather like?” To
answer, use the verb
“to be” with the correct
weather word or phrase.

“Like” is a preposition here, not
a verb as it is in “I like music.”

Use “a lot of ” with a noun to
show the amount of cloud.

FURTHER EXAMPLES TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER

Use the present continuous to say what
is happening with the weather now.

48

MATCH THE PICTURES TO THE CORRECT SENTENCES

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

49

KEY LANGUAGE THE TEMPERATURE
Temperature can be given in “Fahrenheit (°F)” or
“Celsius (°C).” In spoken English, use the verb “to be” with
a temperature phrase to talk about how hot or cold it is.

READ THE CLUES AND WRITE
THE ANSWERS IN THE CORRECT
PLACES ON THE GRID

TIP

You mostly hear
“Fahrenheit (°F)”
in US English, and
“Celsius (°C)” in
UK English.
In spoken English,
“boiling” means
“very hot.”

ACROSS

DOWN

In spoken English,
“freezing” means
“very cold.”

50

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

WRITE EACH SENTENCE
IN ITS OTHER FORM

A radio presenter
describes the weather
across North America.

CHECKLIST
Weather descriptions

Temperature words

Talking about the weather

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 11-13
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

SAYING YOU’RE NOT FEELING WELL

HEALTH PROBLEMS

TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER

GIVING THE TEMPERATURE

TEMPERATURE PHRASES

51

Vocabulary
TRAVEL

52

53

Making comparisons
A comparative adjective is used to describe the
difference between two nouns. Use it before the
word “than” to compare people, places, or things.

New language Comparative adjectives
Vocabulary Travel and countries
New skill Comparing things

KEY LANGUAGE COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES
For most adjectives
with one or two
syllables, add “er”
to make the
comparative.
Add “er” to make
the comparative.

Use “than” after the
comparative adjective.

FURTHER EXAMPLES COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES

KEY LANGUAGE FORMING COMPARATIVES
There are special rules for adjectives ending
in “e,” “y,” and with a single consonant.

Add “er” to most
adjectives of one or
two syllables.

54

If the adjective
ends in “e,”
just add “r.”

For some
adjectives ending
in “y,” take off the
“y” and add “ier.”

For single-syllable adjectives
ending consonant-vowel-consonant,
double the final letter and add “er.”

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL
TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES

FIND NINE COMPARATIVES IN THE GRID AND WRITE THEM
NEXT TO THE CORRECT ADJECTIVE

55

KEY LANGUAGE COMPARATIVES WITH LONG ADJECTIVES
For some
two-syllable
adjectives and
those of three
syllables or more,
use “more” and
“than” to make
the comparative.

The adjective “beautiful” has three
syllables, so you say “more beautiful than.”

Use “more” before
the adjective.

Use “than” after
the adjective.

HOW TO FORM COMPARATIVES WITH LONG ADJECTIVES
SUBJECT + VERB

“MORE”

ADJECTIVE

“THAN”

FURTHER EXAMPLES COMPARATIVES WITH LONG ADJECTIVES

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE CORRECT COMPARATIVES

56

REST OF SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE ADJECTIVES INTO
THEIR COMPARATIVE FORMS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

Selma and Joe are deciding
where to go on vacation.

CHECKLIST
Comparative adjectives

Travel and countries

Comparing things

57

Talking about extremes
Use superlative adjectives to talk about extremes,
such as “the biggest” or “the smallest.” For long
adjectives, use “the most” to make the superlative.

New language Superlative adjectives
Vocabulary Animals, facts, and places
New skill Talking about extremes

KEY LANGUAGE SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES
For most adjectives with
one or two syllables,
add “est” to make
the superlative.

Always use the definite article
(“the”) before the superlative.

Annapurna

The comparative describes the
difference between two things.

The superlative describes which
thing is the most extreme.

K2

Everest

FURTHER EXAMPLES SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES

HOW TO FORM SENTENCES WITH SUPERLATIVES
SUBJECT + VERB

58

“THE” + SUPERLATIVE

REST OF SENTENCE

KEY LANGUAGE FORMING SUPERLATIVES
There are special
rules for adjectives
ending in “e” or “y,”
and for some that
end with a single
consonant.
Add “est” to most
adjectives of one or
two syllables.

If the adjective
ends in “e,” you
just add “st.”

For some adjectives
ending in “y,” take off
the “y” and add “iest.”

For single-syllable adjectives
ending consonant-vowelconsonant, double the
final letter and add “est.”

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Friends Joel, Sarah, and
Ben talk about the things
they’ve bought.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE ADJECTIVES IN THE CORRECT FORM

59

KEY LANGUAGE SUPERLATIVES WITH LONG ADJECTIVES
For some two-syllable adjectives and for adjectives of three syllables or more,
use “the most” before the adjective. The form of the adjective doesn’t change.

Use “the most” with the adjective.

The adjective stays the same.

HOW TO FORM SUPERLATIVES WITH LONG ADJECTIVES
SUBJECT + VERB

“THE” + SUPERLATIVE

ADJECTIVE

REST OF SENTENCE

FURTHER EXAMPLES SUPERLATIVES WITH LONG ADJECTIVES

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

60

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS
USING SUPERLATIVES

CHECKLIST
Superlative adjectives

Animals, facts, and places

Talking about extremes

61

Vocabulary
GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES

62

63

Making choices
“Which,” “what,” “and,” and “or” are all useful words to
add to questions. You can use them to show whether
a question is general or about specific options.

KEY LANGUAGE “AND / OR”

New language “Which” and “what”
Vocabulary Geographical words
New skill Asking multiple-choice questions

Use “or” if there is a choice.

Use “and” to ask
about more than
one thing, and
“or” for choices
and alternatives.

Use “and” to join two
things in one question.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “AND / OR”

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

64

KEY LANGUAGE “WHICH / WHAT”
You use “which” when
there are two or more
possibilities in the
question. Use “what”
when the question
is more general.

There are no choices in the question.

The question includes
a choice of possible answers.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “WHICH / WHAT”

FILL IN THE GAPS USING “WHICH” OR “WHAT”

65

KEY LANGUAGE IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES
Some common adjectives have irregular
comparatives and superlatives.
ADJECTIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

TIP

In US English,
“further” and “furthest”
are used to describe
figurative (not physical)
distances.

FURTHER EXAMPLES IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

66

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Rita Adams answers questions
on a TV game show.

CHECKLIST
“Which” and “what”

Geographical words

Asking multiple-choice questions

67

Using large numbers
You usually write numbers larger than 100 in figures.
To say them, add “and” in front of the number signified
by the last two digits, such as “one hundred and ten.”

New language Large numbers
Vocabulary Thousands and millions
New skill Talking about large amounts

KEY LANGUAGE LARGE NUMBERS
You can say
“one hundred”
or “a hundred.”
Both are correct.
Don’t add “s”
to “hundred,”
“thousand,”
or “million.”

Use commas to
separate long
rows of figures.

No “s” at the end.

FURTHER EXAMPLES LARGE NUMBERS
Add “and”
before the last
two numbers
to say numbers
higher than
one hundred.

“And” goes before “seventy-six.”

Use commas to separate millions, thousands, and hundreds.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK THE NUMBERS YOU HEAR

68

SAY THE NUMBERS OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Large numbers

Thousands and millions

Talking about large amounts

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 15-19
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES

SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES

“AND” AND “OR”

“WHICH” AND “WHAT”

LARGE NUMBERS

69

Vocabulary
THE CALENDAR

70

SEASONS

ORDINAL NUMBERS

71

Talking about dates
There are two different ways of writing and saying dates.
You use numbers along with the month to define the
date you’re talking about.

New language Dates, “was born,” “ago”
Vocabulary Numbers, months, and years
New skill Talking about dates

KEY LANGUAGE WRITING AND SAYING DATES
In the US, people often
describe dates by writing
cardinal numbers and
saying ordinal numbers.

The number comes
after the month.

ANOTHER WAY TO SAY IT WRITING AND SAYING DATES
In some other
places, such as
the UK, people use
ordinal numbers to
write and say dates.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE DATES IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DISCUSSED

72

KEY LANGUAGE USING “WAS BORN”

You say most dates by
grouping the date into
pairs of numbers, such
as “nineteen” and
“seventy-five.”

Use “was born”
to talk about
someone’s date
or year of birth.
You can say “two thousand and fifteen” or “twenty fifteen.”

KEY LANGUAGE USING “AGO”
You use “ago” to
say how many
years before now
something happened.

“Ago” means “before now.”

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND NOTE THE YEAR OF EACH EVENT

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 12 CORRECT SENTENCES
AND SAY THEM OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Dates, “was born,” “ago”

Numbers, months, and years

Talking about dates

73

Talking about the past
The past simple describes events that happened
at a definite time in the past, or the state of
things at a particular point in time.

New language The past simple of “to be”
Vocabulary Jobs, town, and life events
New skill Talking about past states

KEY LANGUAGE THE PAST SIMPLE OF “TO BE”
Any action that
happened and was
completed in the
past can be
described in the past
simple. The past
simple of “to be”
is “was” or “were.”

This is the present simple.

This is the
past simple.

This is a definite
time in the past.

HOW TO FORM THE PAST SIMPLE OF “TO BE”
The past simple
of “to be” changes
with the subject.

SUBJECT

“TO BE”

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PAST SIMPLE OF “TO BE”

74

REST OF SENTENCE

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

READ THE EMAIL AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO
AND MATCH THE EVENTS TO
THE YEARS
Chat Radio give the answers to
their “That Was The Day” quiz.

75

KEY LANGUAGE “WAS” / “WERE” NEGATIVES
As in the present
simple, use “not”
to form negative
statements in
the past simple.

Add “not” after “was” or “were.”

You can contract these
negatives to their short forms.

KEY LANGUAGE “WAS” / “WERE” QUESTIONS
To ask questions
about the past
using the verb
“to be,” swap
the subject
and verb.
Swap the subject
and “to be.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES “WAS” / “WERE” NEGATIVES AND QUESTIONS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

76

WRITE QUESTIONS
BASED ON THE STATEMENTS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO
AND MARK WHAT EACH BUILDING
WAS USED FOR IN THE PAST
A tour guide is talking about
the history of some old buildings.

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 15 CORRECT SENTENCES AND SAY THEM
OUT LOUD

Start with a
pronoun.

Choose the
correct form
of the verb.

Choose a noun.

Finish with
a time.

CHECKLIST
The past simple of “to be”

Jobs, town, and life events

Talking about past states

77

Past events
Some verbs are regular in the past simple. You can
use a lot of them to talk about the past week, the last
year, or your life. Their past simple forms ends in “-ed.”

New language Regular verbs in the past simple
Vocabulary Pastimes and life events
New skill Talking about your past

KEY LANGUAGE REGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE
The past simple describes
events that happened
in the past. The past
simple forms of regular
verbs end in “-ed.” The
negative uses “did not”
plus the base form.

The verb ends in "-ed.”

HOW TO FORM REGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE
The past forms of most
verbs do not change with
the subject. Use the past
simple of “do” plus
the base verb to form
negative statements.

Use the same form
for all subjects.

SUBJECT

PAST VERB

OBJECT

NEGATIVE + VERB

The past form of “do not”
is “did not” or “didn’t.”

Use the base form
of the main verb.

FURTHER EXAMPLES REGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE
Questions are formed using
“did” + subject + the base form of the verb.

78

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE

KEY LANGUAGE SPELLING RULES FOR THE PAST SIMPLE
The past simple
of all regular verbs
ends in “-ed,”
but for some
verbs, there are
some spelling
changes, too.

For many regular
verbs, add “-ed.”

A single syllable word ending
consonant-vowel-consonant.

Double the last
consonant and
add “-ed.”

Last letter is “e.”

Just add a “-d.”

Last letters are
a consonant
and a “y.”

Remove the
“y” and add
“-ied” instead.

FURTHER EXAMPLES SPELLING RULES FOR THE PAST SIMPLE

79

LOOK AT JOYCE’S DIARY FROM LAST WEEK AND FILL IN THE GAPS
TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MATCH THE EVENTS TO THE YEARS
Arno describes his life so far.
He mentions important events and
the years in which they happened.

80

KEY LANGUAGE USING “WHEN” WITH THE PAST SIMPLE
To say when in
someone’s life
something happened,
you can either use “in”
with the year, or “when”
with the person’s age.

This is the past simple action.

This describes when
in the past it happened.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES ADDING “WHEN” CLAUSES

LOOK AT LEONA’S LIFE EVENTS, THEN DESCRIBE EACH ONE OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Regular verbs in the past simple

Pastimes and life events

Talking about your past

81

Past abilities
In the past simple, “can” becomes “could.”
You often use it to talk about things you
“could” do in the past, but can’t do now.

New language Using “could” in the past simple
Vocabulary Abilities and pastimes
New skill Talking about past abilities

KEY LANGUAGE “COULD” FOR PAST ABILITIES
Use “could” to talk about an ability you once had. You can
use “when” plus a time setting to say when you had the ability.
Set the time frame with a phrase
about an age, day, or year.

You can use the present
simple for contrast.

The statement can be positive using “could” or
negative using “couldn’t.” It doesn’t change with
the subject.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “COULD” FOR PAST ABILITIES

HOW TO FORM “COULD” FOR PAST ABILITIES
“WHEN”

Begin with
“when.”

82

TIME SETTING

This phrase sets the
time in the past when
the action was possible.

“COULD”

The statement can be
positive or negative.

ABILITY

Use the base form of the
verb for the past ability.

REWRITE THESE SENTENCES IN THE PAST SIMPLE USING “COULD”

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK THE CORRECT ANSWERS

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 16 CORRECT SENTENCES
AND SAY THEM OUT LOUD

Start with a
“when” phrase.

Choose
an age.

Choose a positive or
negative statement.

Finish with
an ability.

CHECKLIST
Using “could” in the past simple

Abilities and pastimes

Talking about past abilities

83

Vocabulary
ENTERTAINMENT

84

85

Irregular past verbs
In the past simple, some verbs are irregular. Their past
simple forms are not formed using the normal rules, and
sometimes look very different from the infinitive forms.

New language Irregular verbs in the past simple
Vocabulary Sequence words
New skill Describing the past

KEY LANGUAGE IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE
“Go” is the present simple.

“Went” is the past simple of “go.”

To make the negative,
use “didn’t” with the base form.

HOW TO FORM IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE
Verbs in the
past simple do
not change with
the subject.

This is the past simple of “go.”

SUBJECT

SUBJECT

Use “did not” or “didn’t”
to make the negative.

NEGATIVE

VERB

VERB

Use the base form of the
main verb in the negative.

FURTHER EXAMPLES IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE

86

MATCH THE PAST SIMPLE FORMS OF THE VERBS TO THEIR BASE FORMS

READ THE ARTICLE AND NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER THEY
ARE DESCRIBED

87

FILL IN THE GAPS IN THIS JOURNAL USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

VOCABULARY SEQUENCE WORDS
You use certain words and phrases to help
someone understand where you are in the story.

FURTHER EXAMPLES SEQUENCE WORDS

88

REWRITE THE SENTENCES PUTTING THE SEQUENCE WORDS IN THE
CORRECT PLACES

FILL IN THE GAPS USING SEQUENCE WORDS, THEN SAY THE STORY
OUT LOUD

89

KEY LANGUAGE IRREGULAR VERBS, QUESTIONS IN THE PAST SIMPLE
Use the past simple of “do” plus
the base verb form to ask a question.
In the statement the main
verb is in the past simple.

“Did” is in the
past simple of “do.”

The main verb
is in its base form.

FURTHER EXAMPLES IRREGULAR VERBS, QUESTIONS IN THE PAST SIMPLE

MATCH THE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

90

FILL IN THE GAPS TO WRITE QUESTIONS BASED ON THE SENTENCES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Daniella and Marcus are talking
about their friend’s birthday party.

CHECKLIST
Irregular verbs in the past simple

Sequence words

Describing the past

91

Vocabulary
TOOLS

92

KITCHEN IMPLEMENTS

93

Telling a story
You can use “about” to describe the subject matter
of movies, shows, and stories. Use adjectives to make
a description more specific.

New language “About,” opinions
Vocabulary Opinions
New skill Describing media and culture

KEY LANGUAGE USING “ABOUT” TO DESCRIBE MEDIA AND CULTURE
Use “about” to
give more
information
about a movie,
play, show,
story, or book.

This introduces what the
subject matter of the story is.

This is the additional
information on the story.

FURTHER EXAMPLES USING “ABOUT” TO DESCRIBE MEDIA AND CULTURE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND NUMBER THE MOVIES IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DESCRIBED

94

KEY LANGUAGE DESCRIBING YOUR OPINIONS
You can use verbs
in the past simple
to give your
opinions. Use
“because” plus
adjectives to give
your reasons.

Use a positive verb…

Use a negative verb…

…with a positive adjective.

…with a negative adjective.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Two friends discuss
the play they’ve
just seen.

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 12 CORRECT SENTENCES AND SAY THEM
OUT LOUD

95

READ THE REVIEW AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

REWRITE THESE SENTENCES USING NEGATIVE WORDS

96

READ THE CLUES AND WRITE THE ANSWERS IN THE GRID

CHECKLIST
“About,” opinions

Opinions

Describing media and culture

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 21–28
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

WRITING AND SAYING DATES
“TO BE” STATEMENTS AND
QUESTIONS ABOUT THE PAST
REGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE

USING “COULD” FOR PAST ABILITIES

IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE

GIVING OPINIONS ABOUT CULTURE

97

Asking about the past
You can make questions in the past simple using
“did.” This is useful for asking about past events,
such as travel and vacations.

New language Past simple questions
Vocabulary Travel and activities
New skill Talking about vacations

KEY LANGUAGE “YES / NO” QUESTIONS IN THE PAST SIMPLE
Use the auxiliary
verb “did” to make
questions in the past
simple that have
“yes/no” answers.

“Did” goes before the subject.

The verb after “did”
goes in its base form.
Use “did” or “didn’t”
for short answers.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “YES / NO” QUESTIONS IN THE PAST SIMPLE

“Did” doesn’t
change with
the subject.

HOW TO FORM “YES / NO” QUESTIONS IN THE PAST SIMPLE
“DID”

98

SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE
ORDER THEY ARE DESCRIBED
Bea talks about her vacation in India.

MATCH THE QUESTIONS
TO THE SHORT ANSWERS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES
AS QUESTIONS

99

KEY LANGUAGE QUESTION WORDS WITH THE PAST SIMPLE
The question word
goes at the beginning
of the question,
followed by “did”
and the subject.

The question word goes at the beginning.

The verb after “did”
goes in its base form.

FURTHER EXAMPLES QUESTION WORDS WITH THE PAST SIMPLE

MATCH THE QUESTIONS WITH THE CORRECT ANSWERS

100

READ THE EMAIL AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

SAY THE QUESTIONS OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS

CHECKLIST
Past simple questions

Travel and activities

Talking about vacations

101

Applying for a job
If you want to find a job, you need to understand
the English words and phrases used in advertisements
and on recruitment websites.

New language Interview responses
Vocabulary Job words and phrases
New skill Dealing with job applications

VOCABULARY APPLYING FOR A JOB

READ THE JOB ADVERTISEMENTS AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

102

VOCABULARY WORDS IN YOUR RÉSUMÉ

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE QUESTIONS IN THE
ORDER THAT YOU HEAR THEM
Tom Willis is being
interviewed for a job.

CHECKLIST
Interview responses

Job words and phrases

Dealing with job applications

103

Types of questions
There are two kinds of question: subject questions
and object questions. You form them in different ways
in order to ask about different things.

New language Subject and object questions
Vocabulary Workplace words
New skill Asking different kinds of question

KEY LANGUAGE OBJECT QUESTIONS
Use object questions to ask who received an action, not
who did the action. They are called object questions
because the question word is the object of the main verb.
Object

Subject

Use the auxiliary “did” as
with normal questions.
The answer is the
object of the question.

FURTHER EXAMPLES OBJECT QUESTIONS

HOW TO FORM OBJECT QUESTIONS
OBJECT

Different question
words can be used here.

104

AUXILIARY

SUBJECT

The auxiliary tells you whether the question
is talking about the past or the present.

VERB

VOCABULARY IN THE WORKPLACE

LISTEN AND MARK
AS TRUE OR FALSE

WRITE OBJECT QUESTIONS
TO MATCH THE STATEMENTS

Gemma and Arjun are talking
about where they work.

105

KEY LANGUAGE SUBJECT QUESTIONS
Use subject questions to ask who
did the action. They are called subject
questions because the question word
is the subject of the main verb.

Object

Subject

SUBJECT QUESTION

OBJECT QUESTION
Question uses “did.”

Question doesn’t use “did.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES SUBJECT AND OBJECT QUESTIONS
SUBJECT QUESTION

OBJECT QUESTION

HOW TO FORM SUBJECT QUESTIONS
“Who” is the most
common pronoun
used in subject
questions, but you
might hear others.

106

SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT

PUT THE WORDS IN THE
CORRECT ORDER

MARK THE CORRECT
VERSION OF THE QUESTION

WRITE QUESTIONS TO MATCH THE STATEMENTS

CHECKLIST
Subject and object questions

Workplace words

Asking different kinds of question

107

Someone, anyone, everyone
Use indefinite pronouns, such as “anyone,” “someone,”
and “everyone,” to refer to a person or a group of people
without explaining who they are.

New language Indefinite pronouns
Vocabulary Office words
New skill Talking about people in general

KEY LANGUAGE “ANYONE / SOMEONE”
Use “someone” or
“somebody” to refer
to a person in a
positive statement,
and “anyone” or
“anybody” for a
question or a
negative statement.

You can also use “anybody.”
Both words mean: any person.

You can also use “somebody.”
Both words mean: a person.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “ANYONE / SOMEONE”

The statement is negative,
so use “anybody/anyone.”

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

108

KEY LANGUAGE “EVERYONE / NO ONE”

“No one” is written as two words.

Use “everyone” or
“everybody” to refer
to the whole group
in a statement or
question. “No one”
or “nobody” means
none of the group.
Use the singular form of the verb
after “everyone” and “everybody.”

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 12 CORRECT SENTENCES
AND SAY THEM OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Indefinite pronouns

Office words

Talking about people in general

109

Making conversation
Short questions are a way of showing interest when
you are talking with someone. Use them to keep the
conversation going.

New language Short questions
Vocabulary Question words
New skill Asking short questions

KEY LANGUAGE SHORT QUESTIONS
For many verbs, use
the auxiliary verb “do”
to form the question.

You already know
the answers to
short questions.
Use them to invite
the person speaking
to say more.

With the verb “to be,” invert the word order in
the statement to make the short question.

FURTHER EXAMPLES SHORT QUESTIONS

ANOTHER WAY TO SAY IT SHORT QUESTIONS
In US English, short questions
are sometimes not inverted.

110

MATCH THE STATEMENTS TO
THE SHORT QUESTIONS

COMPLETE THE SHORT
QUESTIONS, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Short questions

Question words

Asking short questions

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 29-33
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

QUESTIONS IN THE PAST SIMPLE

SUBJECT AND OBJECT QUESTIONS

“SOMEONE” AND “ANYONE”

“EVERYONE” AND “NO ONE”

SHORT QUESTIONS

111

Vocabulary
GOING OUT

112

113

Future arrangements
You can use the present continuous to talk about
things that are happening now. You can also use it
to talk about arrangements for the future.

New language Future with present continuous
Vocabulary Excuses
New skill Talking about future arrangements

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT CONTINUOUS WITH FUTURE EVENTS
Use time phrases
to show whether a
verb in the present
continuous refers
to the present
or the future.

“At the moment”
refers to the present.

Time clause “tomorrow”
refers to the future.

Present continuous refers to
Dave’s present activity.

Present continuous
refers to a future event
that is planned.

FURTHER EXAMPLES PRESENT CONTINUOUS WITH FUTURE EVENTS

You can use the time word or phrase
at the start or end of a clause.

KEY LANGUAGE “ON / IN” WITH DAYS, MONTHS, AND DATES
Use the preposition “on” in front of days of the week
and specific dates. Use “in” with months and years.

114

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES
IN THE ORDER YOU HEAR THEM

115

KEY LANGUAGE MAKING EXCUSES
Sometimes you need
to say why you can’t do
something. To be polite,
use an expression like
“Sorry, I can’t” before
saying what your
other plans are.

To be polite,
apologize first.

Use the present continuous to say
what you are doing instead.

FURTHER EXAMPLES MAKING EXCUSES

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

116

ANSWER EACH INVITATION OUT LOUD, USING AN EXCUSE FROM
THE DIARY

CHECKLIST
Future with present continuous

Excuses

Talking about future arrangements

117

Plans and intentions
You can use “going to” to talk about what you want to do
in the future. Use it also to talk about specific plans, such
as when and where you’re going to do something.

New language Future tense
Vocabulary Time words and phrases
New skill Talking about your plans

KEY LANGUAGE “GOING TO” FOR FUTURE PLANS
Use the verb “to be”
with “going to” to say
what you plan to do.

Base form of verb.

“Going to” doesn’t change
with the subject.

Use a time word or time phrase
to say when you will cook dinner.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “GOING TO” FOR FUTURE PLANS

Add “not” after the verb “to be” to make the negative.

HOW TO FORM “GOING TO” FOR FUTURE PLANS
SUBJECT

118

“TO BE”

“GOING TO”

BASE FORM OF VERB

REST OF SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE FUTURE WITH “GOING TO”

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

119

KEY LANGUAGE “BY” WITH TIME WORDS AND PHRASES
“By” followed by
a noun or time
phrase means
something will
happen at some
point before
that time.

“Going to” follows the verb “to be.”

NOW

JUNE

FURTHER EXAMPLES “BY” WITH TIME WORDS AND PHRASES
You are going to write to the person
between now and next weekend.

You are going to get fit by the
same date the following year.

READ JACK’S RESOLUTIONS, THEN WRITE ABOUT THEM
USING “GOING TO”

120

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN MATCH EACH PERSON TO THE CORRECT
ACTIVITY AND TIME PHRASE

CHECKLIST
Future tense

Time words and phrases

Talking about your plans

121

What’s going to happen
Use the future with “going to” to make a prediction
about the future when there is evidence in the present
moment to back up that prediction.

New language The future with “going to”
Vocabulary Prediction verbs
New skill Predicting future events

KEY LANGUAGE “GOING TO” FOR FUTURE EVENTS
This form of the future is formed using
“to be” + “going to” + the base form of the verb.

Use “going to” to
give your prediction.

Evidence in the present moment means
that you can make a prediction.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “GOING TO” FOR FUTURE EVENTS

122

FILL IN THE GAPS PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE FUTURE WITH “GOING TO”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

123

READ THE SCHOOL REPORT, THEN FILL IN THE GAPS USING
“GOING TO” OR “NOT GOING TO”

READ THE CLUES AND WRITE THE ANSWERS IN THE CORRECT
PLACES ON THE GRID

124

LOOK AT THE PICTURES, THEN FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS
IN THE PANEL, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 12 CORRECT SENTENCES
AND SAY THEM OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Future tense with “going to”

Prediction verbs

Predicting future events

125

Vocabulary
ANIMALS

126

127

Making predictions
You can use the verb “will” to talk about future events
in English. This form of the future tense has a slightly
different meaning from futures using “going to.”

New language The future with “will”
Vocabulary Prediction words
New skill Saying what you think will happen

KEY LANGUAGE THE FUTURE WITH “WILL”
Use “will” to say what
you think will happen
in the future when you
don’t have firm evidence
for your prediction.

You think the other people will love the
movie, but you don’t have firm evidence.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE FUTURE WITH “WILL”

In negative sentences, “not” goes between
“will” and the base form of the verb.

You can also say “he’ll not,”
but “won’t” is more
common in US English.

In spoken English, you normally
use the contracted form of “will.”

HOW TO FORM THE FUTURE WITH “WILL”
“Will” is a modal
verb, so its form
doesn’t change
with the subject.

128

SUBJECT

“WILL”

BASE FORM OF VERB

REST OF SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE FUTURE WITH “WILL” OR “WILL NOT”

READ THE NOTE AND REWRITE THE HIGHLIGHTED PHRASES USING
PRONOUNS AND CONTRACTED “WILL” WITH FUTURE VERBS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MATCH THE QUESTIONS TO THE
CORRECT ANSWERS

129

KEY LANGUAGE “THINK” WITH “WILL”
If you’re not sure about
something, you can
begin a sentence with
“I think.” This shows you
are giving your opinion.

You’re not
certain.

“That” is not essential to the
sentence, and it’s often left out.

HOW TO FORM “THINK” WITH “WILL”
SUBJECT

“THINK”

“THAT”

SUBJECT + “WILL”

VERB

“That” is often left out.

FURTHER EXAMPLES SENTENCES WITH “THINK” AND “WILL”

To make the sentence negative, add
“do not” or “don’t” before “think.”

MATCH THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT PREDICTIONS

130

REST OF SENTENCE

KEY LANGUAGE “GOING TO” AND “WILL”
Use “going to” when
you have evidence for
a prediction. Use “will”
when a prediction
is an opinion
without evidence.

You are predicting this, but you
don’t have firm evidence.

You are predicting this
based on firm evidence.

LOOK AT THE PICTURES, THEN SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING
IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
The future with “will”

Prediction words

Saying what you think will happen

131

Making quick decisions
You can use “will” to talk about the future in two ways:
when you make a prediction without evidence, and
when you make a quick decision to do something.

New language Quick decisions with “will”
Vocabulary Decision words
New skill Talking about future actions

KEY LANGUAGE QUICK DECISIONS WITH “WILL”
If you suddenly decide
to do something while
you’re speaking, use
“will” to say what
you’re going to do.
“Will” shows you have
just made the decision.

FURTHER EXAMPLES QUICK DECISIONS WITH “WILL”
Contracted form of “will not.”

KEY LANGUAGE “SO / IN THAT CASE”
Use “so” or the
expression “in
that case” to link
a situation and
the decision you
make as a result
of that situation.

SITUATION

SITUATION

132

DECISION

DECISION

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN
NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE
ORDER THEY ARE DESCRIBED

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE
WORDS IN THE PANEL

133

KEY LANGUAGE “THINK” WITH “WILL”
You can use “think”
with “will” to show
that your decision
is something you
are considering.

You are deciding now.
You’re not completely sure.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “THINK” WITH “WILL”

READ THE TEXT MESSAGES
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

134

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS USING
THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Quick decisions with “will”

Decision words

Talking about future actions

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 35–40
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

FUTURE TENSE WITH PRESENT
CONTINUOUS
“GOING TO” FOR FUTURE PLANS

FUTURE TENSE WITH “GOING TO”

FUTURE TENSE WITH “WILL”

QUICK DECISIONS WITH “WILL”

135

Future possibilities
Use “might” to show you’re not sure if you’ll
do something. It’s a possibility and you don’t
want to say that you “will” or you “won’t.”

New language Using “might”
Vocabulary Activities, food, and pastimes
New skill Talking about future possibilities

KEY LANGUAGE “MIGHT” WITH FUTURE POSSIBILITIES
“Will” and “won’t”
describe things
that are certain to
happen or certain
not to happen. Use
“might” to show
that something
is not certain.

Negative

Possible

Positive

FURTHER EXAMPLES “MIGHT” WITH FUTURE POSSIBILITIES

TIP

“Might” isn’t
normally used
in questions.

To form the negative, add “not” between “might” and
the verb. In UK English, it can be shortened to “mightn’t.”

HOW TO FORM “MIGHT” WITH FUTURE POSSIBILITIES
SUBJECT

“MIGHT”

MAIN VERB

As with all modal verbs, “might”
doesn’t change with the subject.

136

REST OF SENTENCE

Use the base form
of the main verb.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE
CORRECT ORDER

REWRITE THE
HIGHLIGHTED PHRASES,
CORRECTING THE ERRORS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING “WON’T,” “MIGHT,” AND “WILL”
NEGATIVE

POSSIBLE

POSITIVE

137

KEY LANGUAGE “MIGHT” WITH UNCERTAINTY
You can use other
phrases along
with “might” to
emphasize that
you are uncertain
about something.

MATCH THE QUESTIONS TO THE ANSWERS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

138

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD USING “WILL,” “MIGHT,” AND “WON’T”
POSITIVE

POSSIBLE

NEGATIVE

CHECKLIST
Using “might”

Activities, food, and pastimes

Talking about future possibilities

139

Giving advice
If someone has a problem, one of the ways
that you can give advice is by using the
modal verb “should.”

New language “Should”
Vocabulary Advice
New skill Giving advice

KEY LANGUAGE “SHOULD” TO GIVE ADVICE
“Should” shows that you think this is the best thing to do.

“Should” comes
before the advice.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “SHOULD” TO GIVE ADVICE

For a negative, add “not” between
“should” and the main verb.

“Should not” can be
shortened to “shouldn’t.”

HOW TO FORM “SHOULD” TO GIVE ADVICE
SUBJECT

“SHOULD”

MAIN VERB

“Should” is a modal verb,
so it stays the same no
matter what the subject is.

140

REST OF SENTENCE

“Should” is followed by
the base form of the verb.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS
IN THE SENTENCES TO GIVE GOOD ADVICE

141

MATCH THE PROBLEMS TO THE ADVICE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK THE CORRECT PIECE OF ADVICE
FOR EACH PROBLEM

142

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS USING “SHOULD”
OR “SHOULDN’T”

CHECKLIST
“Should”

Advice

Giving advice

143

Making suggestions
You can use the modal verb “could” to
offer suggestions. “Could” is not as strong
as “should.” It communicates gentle advice.

New language “Could” for suggestions
Vocabulary Advice
New skill Making suggestions

KEY LANGUAGE “COULD” FOR SUGGESTIONS
“Could” is often
used to suggest
a solution to a
problem. It introduces
possibilities but
not preferences.

“Could” means that the action is
a possibility; a choice that might
solve the problem.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “COULD” FOR SUGGESTIONS

HOW TO FORM “COULD” FOR SUGGESTIONS
SUBJECT

“COULD”

VERB

“Could” is a modal verb, so it
doesn’t change with the subject.

144

REST OF SENTENCE

The main verb goes
in its base form.

MATCH THE PROBLEMS TO THE CORRECT SUGGESTIONS

CHOOSE THE CORRECT SUGGESTIONS FROM THE PANEL, THEN SAY
THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD

145

KEY LANGUAGE USING “COULD” AND “OR” FOR SUGGESTIONS
When people give suggestions using “could,” they
often give more than one option to choose from.

Use “or” to give an alternative suggestion.

FURTHER EXAMPLES USING “COULD” AND “OR” FOR SUGGESTIONS

You don’t have to repeat the
modal verb “could” after “or.”

If the main verb is the same
for both suggestions, you
don’t repeat it after “or.”

USE THE PHRASES TO WRITE SUGGESTIONS USING “COULD” AND “OR”

146

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK THE TWO SUGGESTIONS GIVEN TO
SOLVE EACH PROBLEM

CHECKLIST
“Could” for suggestions

Advice

Making suggestions

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 41–43
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

USING “MIGHT” WITH
FUTURE POSSIBILITIES
USING “MIGHT”
WITH UNCERTAINTY
USING “SHOULD” TO GIVE ADVICE

USING “SHOULDN’T” TO GIVE ADVICE

USING “COULD” FOR SUGGESTIONS

USING “OR” FOR SUGGESTIONS

147

Vocabulary
HOUSEHOLD CHORES

148

149

Around the house
You can use the present perfect form of a verb to talk
about something that has happened in the past and
has consequences in the present.

New language The present perfect
Vocabulary Household chores
New skill Talking about the recent past

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT PERFECT
Use the present perfect to describe something that has happened
in the past and which has a result in the present moment.
“Just” means that the action
has happened recently.

TIP

Form regular past
participles in the same
way that you form the past
simple, by adding “ed”
to the base form
of the verb.

“Have” or “has” go
after the subject in
the present perfect.

The main verb goes in
its past participle form.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT PERFECT

HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT PERFECT
SUBJECT + “HAVE” / “HAS”

“JUST”

To make the present perfect, use “have” or
“has” with the past participle of the verb.

150

PAST PARTICIPLE

OBJECT

KEY LANGUAGE FORMING
IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES
There are no rules for forming irregular
past participles, but some irregular past
participles have similar endings.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY
PUTTING THE VERBS INTO
THE PRESENT PERFECT

FILL IN THE GAPS TO WRITE EACH SENTENCE THREE DIFFERENT WAYS

151

FIND EIGHT REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES
AND WRITE THEM NEXT TO THE CORRECT VERBS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Adam and Becky are getting
ready to have a party.

152

REWRITE THESE VERBS AS PAST PARTICIPLES

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS
BY PUTTING THE VERBS FROM THE PANEL IN THE PRESENT PERFECT

CHECKLIST
The present perfect

Household chores

Talking about the recent past

153

Events in your life
Both the present perfect and the past simple can
be used to talk about things that happened in the
past, but you use them differently.

New language The present perfect
Vocabulary Adventure sports
New skill Talking about past events

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT PERFECT AND THE PAST SIMPLE
Use the past simple
to talk about something
that happened at
a definite time. Use the
present perfect when
you don’t specify
a particular time.

You give a specific date,
2010, so use the past simple.

NOW
You don’t give a specific date, so use the present perfect.

NOW

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT PERFECT AND THE PAST SIMPLE
PAST SIMPLE

154

PRESENT PERFECT

VOCABULARY ADVENTURE SPORTS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS

155

KEY LANGUAGE “BEEN / GONE”
You can use “be”
and “go” in the
present perfect
to talk about your
trips to places, but
they have different
meanings.

She is still in Florida.

She went to Florida, but
now she is back home.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “BEEN / GONE”

FILL IN THE GAPS USING “BEEN” OR “GONE”

156

READ THE POSTCARD AND WRITE THE VERBS UNDER
THE CORRECT HEADINGS
PRESENT PERFECT

PAST SIMPLE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
CORRECTING THE ERRORS

CHECKLIST
The present perfect

Adventure sports

Talking about past events

157

Events in your year
One of the uses of the present perfect is to talk about
events in a time period that hasn’t finished. Use the past
simple for a time period that is completed.

New language “Yet” and “already”
Vocabulary Routines and chores
New skill Talking about the recent past

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
If the time period referred to
is ongoing, use the present
perfect. Use the past simple to
talk about a completed event.

This year has not finished yet.
Use the present perfect.

January is a time period that
has finished. Use the past simple.

JAN

NOW

FURTHER EXAMPLES PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT PERFECT
OR PAST SIMPLE

158

DEC

READ THE ARTICLE, THEN ANSWER THE QUESTIONS,
SPEAKING OUT LOUD

159

KEY LANGUAGE “YET”
“Yet” means
“until now.”
It shows that you
have an intention
to do something.

You haven’t ordered the pizzas,
but you will order them later.

KEY LANGUAGE “ALREADY”
Use “already”
when something
has happened,
possibly sooner
than expected.

You’ve ordered the pizzas before
the other person expected.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “ALREADY” AND “YET”

You can use “yet”
in short answers.

MATCH THE QUESTIONS TO THE CORRECT ANSWERS

160

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Sharon and Paul are getting ready
to leave home and go on vacation.

LOOK AT SANTIAGO’S “TO DO” LIST AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE
QUESTIONS AS FULL SENTENCES USING “ALREADY” AND “YET”

CHECKLIST
“Yet” and “already”

Routines and chores

Talking about the recent past

161

Eating out
“Eating out” means having a meal outside your home,
usually in a restaurant. To do this, you need to know the
language for making a reservation and ordering food.

New language Restaurant phrases
Vocabulary Food preparation
New skill Ordering a meal in a restaurant

KEY LANGUAGE ORDERING A MEAL
A restaurant meal often has three courses.

TIP

In US English, you
can use “entrée” or
“main course” to
describe the main
dish in a meal.

162

VOCABULARY EATING OUT AND FOOD PREPARATION

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT
LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS

Bill and Janet are ordering
a meal in a restaurant.

CHECKLIST
Restaurant phrases

Food preparation

Ordering a meal in a restaurant

163

Achievements and ambitions
English uses different phrases to talk about future wishes
or desires, definite future plans, and past achievements.
Use them in conversation to talk about your life.

New language Desires and plans
Vocabulary Travel and adventure sports
New skill Talking about your achievements

KEY LANGUAGE DESIRES AND PLANS
Use expressions
such as “I’d like to”
for desires. Use
“I’m going to”
for definite plans.

You want to work abroad.

Your plan is to work
abroad next year.

FURTHER EXAMPLES DESIRES AND PLANS

MATCH THE QUESTIONS TO THE CORRECT ANSWERS

164

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHAT BRETT HAS OR HASN’T DONE
Radio presenter Ken Wallace
interviews stunt man Brett Ellis.

READ THE CLUES AND WRITE THE ANSWERS IN THE CORRECT
PLACES ON THE GRID
ACROSS

DOWN

165

KEY LANGUAGE THINGS I’VE DONE AND WANT TO DO
Use words such as
“never,” “yet,” or
“really” to place a
different emphasis on
what you’re saying.

“I’ve never …” is stronger than “I’ve not …”

You haven’t seen the Pyramids of Giza until
now, but you intend to see them one day.

Your desire to climb Mount Everest is strong.

MATCH THE PICTURES TO THE CORRECT SENTENCES

166

READ THE EMAIL AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Desires and plans

Travel and adventure sports

Talking about your achievements

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 45-49
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

THE PRESENT PERFECT
THE PAST SIMPLE AND
THE PRESENT PERFECT
“YET” AND “ALREADY”
WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT
ORDERING A MEAL

DESIRES AND PLANS

167

Answers
Note: All answers can be written
with or without contractions.

Note: All answers can also be
written without contractions.

168

ACTION VERBS: go, learn, read, eat
STATE VERBS: want, love, hate,
remember

169

170

171

172

173

174

175

176

177

178

179

180

Index
All entries are indexed by unit number.
Main entries are highlighted in bold.

A

“a lot of ” 13.1
abilities 24
“about” 28.1
“ache” 11.3
achievements 49
action verbs 5
activities 3 4 5 29 41
adjectives 12.2
comparative 15 16.1 18.7
“e” endings 15.3 16.4
feelings 7
irregular adjectives 18.7
opinions 28.4
superlatives 16 18.7
adventure sports 46.3
adverbs 7.8
of frequency 9.1
advice 42 43
age 1.1 23.9
“ago” 21.5
“already” 47.6
ambitions 49
“and”
in questions 18.1
use in numbers 19.2
animals 16 38
answering questions 13.1 29.1 31.1
47.7
“anyone” and “anybody” 32.1
apologies 35.6 see also excuses
asking questions 4.1 18.1 18.4 29 31
“at the moment” 35.1
auxiliary verbs 29 31

B
“bad” 18.7
base form see verbs
“be” 46.6
“beautiful” 15.6
“because” 28.4
“been” 46.6 46.7
“better” and “best” 18.7
birds 38
birth dates 21.4
body parts 10 11
“boiling” 13.5
“broken” 11.3
“but” 9.1
“by” 36.6

C
calendar 20.1
“can’t” 24.1 35.6
cardinal numbers 20.3 21.1
Celsius (°C) 13.5
choices 18
chores (household) 44
clothes 3
comma use, numbers 19.1 19.2
comparative adjectives 15 16.1 18.7
conjunctions
“and” 18.1
“because” 28.4
“but” 9.1
“or” 18.1 43.6
“so” 7.8 40.4
contracted negatives
“can’t” 24.1
“didn’t” and “doesn’t” 26.2 2.8
“isn’t” and “aren’t” 1.9
“shouldn’t” 42.2
“wasn’t” and “weren’t” 22.7
“won’t” 40.2
contractions
“I’m” 1.1
“they’re” 3.3
“they’ll” 39.2
contrasting statements 9.1
conversations 1.1 33 49

cooking 27.1
“could”
past abilities 24.1 24.3
suggestions 43
countries 15
culture 28 34
current events 47
CVs 30

D
“d” endings (past simple) 23.5
dates 20 21
of birth 21.4
future events 35.3
past events 23.9 46.1
days 20.1 35.3
decisions 40
definite article 16.1
describing things see adjectives
“did”
questions past simple 26.11 29
object questions 31.1 31.7
“did not” and “didn’t” 23.1 29.1 29.2
digital gadgets 4.7
“do” and “does” 2.11
“do not” and “don’t” 2.7 11.1
“does not” and “doesn’t” 2.8 11.1

E
eating out 34 48
“ed” endings (past simple) 23.1 23.5
emotions (feelings) 6 7
emphasis 7.8 41.7 49.6
entertainment 25 34
“er” endings 15.1 15.3
“est” endings 16.1 16.4
“ever” 46.1
“everyone” and “everybody” 32.4
evidence
predictions with 37.1 39.11
predictions without 39.1 39.11
excuses 35.6
extremes 16

181

F

I

M

Fahrenheit (°F) 13.5
family 1
“far” 18.7
“feeling” 11.1
feelings 6 7
health complaints 11
films 25
fish 38
food 34 41 48
forecast (weather) 12.2
“freezing” 13.5
frequency adverbs 9.1
future
events 35 36 37 39 40
plans 49
with “going to” 36 37
with “might” 41
with “will” 39 40

“I am” and “I’m” 1.1
“I don’t know” 41.7
“I will” and “I’ll” 40.1
“I’m not sure” 41.7
“ier” endings 15.3
“iest” endings 16.4
“ill” 11.1
indefinite pronouns 32
infinitive (verbs) 2.1 see also base form
(verbs)
“in that case” 40.4
“in” 35.3
“ing” endings 3 4.2
intentions 36
interviews ( jobs) 30
irregular adjectives 18.7
irregular comparatives 18.7
irregular superlatives 18.7
irregular verbs 2.2
past participles 45.4
past simple 26.1 26.11
“is not” and “isn’t” 3.7

meals ordering 48
media 25 28
“might” 41
“might not” and “mightn’t” 41.3
millions 19.1
modal verbs 39.3 41.3 42.3 43.3 43.7
months 20.1 21.1 21.2
future events 35.3
moods 6
“more” 15.6 16.7
“most” 16.7
movies 25 26

G
gadgets 4
geographical features 17 18
gerunds 3.2
“go” 26.1 46.6
“going to” 36 37 39.11 49.1
“gone” 46.6 46.7
“good” 18.7
“got” 11.3

H
habits 2 9
“have” and “has” 11.3 45.3 46.1
health complaints 11
holidays (vacations) 14
household chores 44 45
“how” questions 7.1 7.7 13.5 29.7
hundreds 19.1
“hurts” 11.3

182

JK
jobs (employment) 1 22 30
jobs (household) 44
“just” 45.1
kitchen implements 27.1

L
large numbers 19
life events 21 22 23 46
“like” as a preposition 13.1
“like to” 49.1
“love” 5.1 39.3

N
names 1.1
nationality 1.1
negative opinions 28.4
negatives 1.8 3.7 32.1
“could not” and “couldn’t” 24.1
“did not” and “didn’t” 23.1 23.2 26.1
26.2
“do not” and “don’t” 39.9
“might not” and “mightn’t” 41.2
“not” 1.8 3.7 11.1 22.7 36.2 41.2
42.2
“not going to” 36.2
“should not” and “shouldn’t” 42.2
“was” and “were” 22.7
“will not” and “won’t” 39.2
“never” 49.6
“next” 26.7
nights out 34
“no” and “yes”
questions 29
answers 29.1 47.7
“no one” and “nobody” 32.4
“not” 1.8 3.7 11.1 22.7 36.2 41.2 42.2
“not going to” 36.2
nouns 13.1 15 36.6
numbers 19 20.3 see also dates

O
object questions 31
“on” 35.3
opinions 28.4 39.7
“or” 18.1 43.6
ordering a meal 48
ordinal numbers 20.3 21.1 21.2

P
“pain” 11.3
past
abilities 24
events 22 23 26 46 47
questions about 29
recent 45.1
past participle 45
past simple 22 24 28.4 46.1 47.1
negatives 22.7
irregular verbs 26.1 26.11
opinions 28.4
questions 26.11 29
regular verbs 23 45.1
to be 22.1 22.2
pastimes 2 23 24 41
places 15 16
plans 36 49
plurals 1.3
polite conversations 35.6
positive opinions 28.4
positive statements 24.1 32.1 41.1
possibilities 18.4 41 43.1
predictions
with evidence 37.1 39.11
without evidence 39.1 39.11
prepositions 13.1 35.3
present
events 45 46 47
present continuous 3 4 9.1
with future plans 35.1 35.6 40.1
negative 3.7 3.8
questions 4.1 4.2
with “to be” 11.1 13.2
with verbs 5.1 5.4
present participle 3.2 3.7
present perfect 45 46.1 47

present simple 1 2 3 7 9.1
negative 2.7 2.9
with past simple 22.1
with present continuous 3.1
pronouns 1.3 31.9 32

Q
questions 31 32.1 32.4 33
answering questions 13.1 29.1 31.1
47.7
asking about the weather 13.1 13.5
asking about feelings 7.1 7.7
in the past simple 26.11 29
in the present continuous 4.1
multiple choice questions 18.1 18.4
using “did” 23.3
using “do” and “does” 2.11
using “was” and “were” 22.8
using “which” and “what” 18.4

R
“r” endings 15.3
“read” 5.1
“really” 7.8 49.6
recent past 45.1
references ( job) 30.3
regular verbs 23 45.1
restaurants 48.2
résumé 30.1
routines 2 9

S
seasons 20.2
sequence words 26.7
short answers 29.1 47.7
short forms contractions
short questions 33.1
“should” 42.1 42.3
“should not” and “shouldn’t” 42.2
“sick” 11.1
singular 1.3 32.4
situations and decisions 40.4

“so” 7.8 40.4
“someone” and “somebody” 32.1
“sorry” 35.6
spelling
comparative and superlative adjectives
15.3 16.4
UK and US English differences 12
18.7
verbs in simple forms 2.1 23.5
spoken English 1.1 39.2 40.1
excuses 35.6
numbers 19.1
saying dates 21
saying what’s wrong 11
temperature 13.5
UK and US English differences 18.7
21.1 21.2 39.2
sports 46
“st” endings 16.4
state verbs 5
storytelling 26.7 28.1
subjects questions 31.7
suggestions 42 43
superlative adjectives 16
syllables
in comparative adjectives 15
in superlative adjectives 16

T
television 25
temperature 13.5
tenses
future 35 36 37 39 40
past
past simple 22 24 28.4 46.1
47.1
present
present continuous 3 4 9.1
present perfect 45 46.1 47
present simple 1 2 3 7 9.1
the (definite article) 16.1
“then” 26.7
“think” 39.7 40.7
thousands 19.1
time markers 9.1 9.5
time phrases 35.1 35.2 36.1 36.6 47.1

183

to be 1.1 1.3 7.1
negatives 1.8 3.7
past simple 22
present continuous 3.2 3.7 11.1
questions and answers 1.12 13.1
13.5 33.1
with “going to” 36.1 37.1
to do 26.11 29.1
“tomorrow” 35.1
tools 27.1
town vocabulary 22
transport 8
travel 14 15 29

U
UK and US English differences
spelling 12 18.7
spoken 18.7 21.1 21.2 39.2
vocabulary 8 11.1 13.5 20.2 25 34
44 48.1 48.2
uncertainty 41.7

V
vacations (holidays) 14
verbs 1.12 2.1 see also to be; to do
action verbs 5
infinitive (verb) 2.1 see also base form
“ing” endings 3 4.2
irregular verbs 2.2
past participles 45.4
past simple 26.1 26.11
modal verbs 39.3 41.3 42.3
43.3 43.7
regular verbs 23.1 23.2 45.1
present continuous 4.4 5.1 35.1
state verbs 5
“very” 7.8

W
“want” 5.4 49.6
“was born” 21.4
“was” and “were” 22.1 22.2
“was not” and “wasn’t” 22.7
weather 12 13
week 20.1
“well” 11.1
“went” 26.1 26.2

“were not” and “weren’t” 22.7
“what” 18.4
“when”
in questions 29.7
in statements 23.9 24.1
“which” 18.4
“who” 31.9
wildlife 38
“will” 39 40 41.1
“will not” and “won’t” 39.2 41.1
workplace 31.4
“worse” and “worst” 18.7
written English 32.4 see also spelling
dates 21.1 21.2
numbers 19

Y
“y” endings
adjectives 15.3 16.4
verbs 23.5
years 20.1 21.4 21.5 23.9
future events 35.3
“yes” and “no”
questions 29
answers 29.1 47.7
“yet” 47.5 49.6

Acknowledgments
The publisher would like to thank:
Jo Kent, Trish Burrow, and Emma Watkins
for additional text; Thomas Booth, Helen
Fanthorpe, Helen Leech, Carrie Lewis, and
Vicky Richards for editorial assistance;
Stephen Bere, Sarah Hilder, Amy Child,
Fiona Macdonald, and Simon Murrell for
additional design work; Simon Mumford for
maps and national flags; Peter Chrisp for
fact checking; Penny Hands, Amanda
Learmonth, and Carrie Lewis for
proofreading; Elizabeth Wise for indexing;
Tatiana Boyko, Rory Farrell, Clare Joyce, and

184

Viola Wang for additional illustrations;
Liz Hammond for editing audio scripts and
managing audio recordings; Hannah Bowen
and Scarlett O’Hara for compiling audio
scripts; George Flamouridis for mixing and
mastering audio recordings; Heather
Hughes, Tommy Callan, Tom Morse,
Gillian Reid, and Sonia Charbonnier for
creative technical support; Shipra Jain,
Roohi Rais, Anita Yadav, Manish Upreti,
Nehal Verma, Jaileen Kaur, Tushar Kansal,
Vishal Bhatia, Nisha Shaw, and Ankita Yada
for technical assistance.

DK would like to thank the following for
their kind permission to use their
photographs:
61 Dorling Kindersley: Peter Cook
(center); Nigel Hicks (top center). 157
Rough Guides, Courtesy of Sydney
Opera House Trust: Andrew Goldie
(center).

All other images are copyright DK.
For more information, please visit
www.dkimages.com.