Головна English for Everyone - Level 4 Advanced - Course Book

English for Everyone - Level 4 Advanced - Course Book

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First published in Great Britain in 2016 by Dorling Kindersley Limited

Our Course Book (Level 4) is a great reference guide to introduce English at an advanced stage including key language skills, grammar, and vocabulary. Build your confidence and fluency of conversational English.

Ideal for English test preparations or ESL lesson plans, the Course Book uses visual teaching methods to introduce the English language, reinforced through a variety of exercises and examples when used alongside our Practice Book (Level 4). Challenge your English experience in Level 4 with topical content covering family life, careers and business, news and media, and even laws, rules, and regulations. Improve your vocabulary, grammar, and punctuation to an advanced level in this comprehensive guide to practical English usage.

Whether you are looking for ESL teaching resources, or a structured programme for adults to learn English as a second language, the English for Everyone Course Books provide:
- Sample language examples: New language topics are introduced in context using clear, illustrated, and colour coded explanations
- Supporting audio: Extensive English-speaking audio materials integrated into every unit, giving vital oral and listening practice. (All supplementary audio is available on the DK English for Everyone website and IOS/Android App).
- Quick referencing: Easy-to-follow units, mirrored in both the Course and Practice Books for easy referencing and teaching
- Sentence formation guides: Visual break downs of English grammar in use, showing learners how to recreate even complex English sentences
- Visual English vocabulary cues: Lists of useful English words and common phrases with visual aids are available throughout the book
- Personalised learning: Write-on lines encourage ESL learners to write their own prompts and translations where needed to help customise English language learning

The English for Everyone Level 4 resources cover the advanced skills and topics required for all major global English-language exams and reference frameworks including:
- CEFR: upper B2 - C1
- TOEFL (test paper): 520-580
- TOEFL (computer-based test): 200-240
- TOEFL (online test): 70-95
- IELTS: 5.5-7
- TOEIC: 850-900

English for Everyone is a series of guides and practice books that supports English learning for adults from a beginner level, to intermediate, and advanced practical English. Offering an easy-to-follow format that offers guidance for both teaching English as a foreign language, and a self-study approach with resources available to improve English speaking, reading and writing.
Рік:
2016
Видання:
First edition
Видавництво:
DK, Dorling Kindersley
Мова:
english
Сторінки:
288
ISBN 13:
9780241242322
Серії:
English for Everyone
Файл:
PDF, 138,78 MB

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1994
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english
File:
PDF, 462.09 MB
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Author
Victoria Boobyer is a freelance writer, presenter, and teacher trainer
with a background in English-language teaching and teacher
management. She has a keen interest in the use of graded readers and
the sound pedagogical use of technology in teachin.

Course consultant
Tim Bowen has taught English and trained teachers in more than 30
countries worldwide. He is the co-author of works on pronunciation
teaching and language-teaching methodology, and author of
numerous books for English-language teachers. He is currently a
freelance materials writer, editor, and translator. He is a member
of the Chartered Institute of Linguists.

Language consultant
Professor Susan Barduhn is an experienced English-language
teacher, teacher trainer, and author, who has contributed to
numerous publications. In addition to directing English-language
courses in at least four different continents, she has been President
of the International Association of Teachers of English as
a Foreign Language, and an adviser to the British Council
and the US State Department. She is currently a Professor
at the School for International Training in Vermont, USA.

ENGLISH
FO R E V E RYO N E
COURSE BOOK
ADVANCED
LEVEL

Contents
Editors Lili Bryant, Ben Ffrancon Davies
Art Editors Daniela Boraschi, Clare Joyce,
Clare Shedden, Michelle Staples
Editorial Assistants Jessica Cawthra, Sarah Edwards
Illustrators Edwood Burn, Denise Joos, Clare Joyce,
Michael Parkin, Jemma Westing
Audio Producer Liz Hammond
Managing Editor Daniel Mills
Managing Art Editor Anna Hall
Project Manager Christine Stroyan
Jacket Designer Natalie Godwin
Jacket Editor Claire Gell
Jacket Design Development Manager
Sophia MTT
Producer, Pre-Production Luca Frassinetti
Producer Mary Slater
Publisher Andrew Macintyre
Art Director Karen Self
Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf
DK India
Jacket Designer Surabhi Wadhwa
Managing Jackets Editor Saloni Singh
Senior DTP Designer Harish Aggarwal
First published in Great Britain in 2016 by
Dorling Kindersley Limited
80 Strand, London,;  WC2R 0RL
Copyright © 2016 Dorling Kindersley Limited
A Penguin Random House Company
10 8 6 4 2 1 3 5 7 9
001–289759–Jun/2016
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or
introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or
by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise), without the prior written
permission of the copyright owner.
A CIP catalogue record for this book
is available from the British Library.
ISBN: 978-0-2412-4232-2
Printed and bound in China
All images © Dorling Kindersley Limited
For further information see: www.dkimages.com

A WORLD OF IDEAS:
SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW
www.dk.com

How the course works

Making conversation

8
12

New language Present tenses
Vocabulary Meeting new people
New skill Using question tags

Action and state verbs

16

New language State verbs in continuous forms
Vocabulary Action and state verbs
New skill Describing states

Using collocations

18

New language Collocations
Vocabulary Beliefs and opinions
New skill Talking about your life

Complex descriptions

22

New language General and specific adjectives
Vocabulary Personalities
New skill Ordering adjectives

Making general statements

26

New language Introductory “it”
Vocabulary Talents and abilities
New skill Expressing general truths

Vocabulary Travel and tourism

30

Phrasal verbs

32

New language Phrasal verbs overview
Vocabulary Travel
New skill Using complex phrasal verbs

Narrative tenses

36

New language The past perfect continuous
Vocabulary Travel adjectives and idioms
New skill Talking about a variety of past actions

Giving advice and opinions

40

New language Modals for advice and opinion
Vocabulary Recommendations
New skill Giving advice and opinions

Making predictions
New language Degrees of likelihood
Vocabulary Idioms about time
New skill Talking about possibilities

44

Vocabulary Family and relationships

48

Using discourse markers

50

New language Linking information
Vocabulary Family history
New skill Talking about relationships

Past habits and states

54

58

62

66

Taking notes

68

New language Organizing information
Vocabulary Academic life
New skill Taking notes
72

Complex verb patterns

94

Double object verbs

98

Vocabulary Meeting and presenting

102

Reflexive pronouns

104

Meeting and planning

108

New language Combining verbs
Vocabulary Office tasks
New skill Taking part in meetings
76

New language The passive voice
Vocabulary Online learning
New skill Changing sentence emphasis

Things that might happen

90

New language Reflexive pronouns
Vocabulary Workplace language
New skill Talking about work issues

New language Generalization
Vocabulary Approximate quantity phrases
New skill Talking about numbers

New language “What if,” “suppose,” “in case”
Vocabulary Exams and assessment
New skill Talking about hypothetical situations

Asking polite questions

New language Double object verbs
Vocabulary New businesses
New skill Talking about starting a business

Vocabulary Studying

Changing emphasis

86

New language Verb + infintive / gerund
Vocabulary World of work
New skill Using complex verb patterns

New language Two comparatives together
Vocabulary Age and population
New skill Expressing cause, effect, and change

Speaking approximately

Job applications

New language Direct and indirect questions
Vocabulary Job interviews
New skill Asking questions politely

New language “As... as” comparisons
Vocabulary Adjective-noun collocations
New skill Comparing and contrasting

Two comparatives together

84

New language Prepositions and gerunds
Vocabulary Job applications
New skill Writing a résumé and cover letter

New language “Used to” and “would”
Vocabulary Family values
New skill Contrasting the past with the present

Comparing and contrasting

Vocabulary Working

Qualifying descriptions

112

New language Non-gradable adjectives
Vocabulary Qualifying words
New skill Adding detail to descriptions
80

Expressing purpose
New language “In order to,” “so that”
Vocabulary Language of apology
New skill Expressing purpose

118

Vocabulary Environmental concerns

122

Conditional tenses

124

New language The third conditional
Vocabulary Environmental threats
New skill Talking about an unreal past

Past regrets

130

134

138

144

Past possibility

146

New language “Might / may / could” in the past
Vocabulary Urban myths
New skill Talking about past possibility
150

Adding emphasis

172

Shifting focus

176

Vocabulary Crime and the law

180

Relative clauses

182

More relative clauses

186

New language Where, when, whereby, whose
Vocabulary Courtroom phrases
New skill Using relative words
154

New language Mixed conditionals
Vocabulary Personality traits
New skill Talking about hypothetical situations

Adding “-ever” to question words

168

New language Relative clauses
Vocabulary Crime and criminals
New skill Specifying and elaborating

New language More uses for modal verbs
Vocabulary Phrasal verbs with “out”
New skill Speculating and making deductions

New language Words with “-ever”
Vocabulary Chance and weather phrases
New skill Joining a clause to a sentence

Making indirect statements

New language Focusing with clauses
Vocabulary Phrases for emphasis
New skill Shifting focus

Vocabulary Tradition and superstition

Mixed conditionals

164

New language Inversion after adverbials
Vocabulary Media and celebrity
New skill Adding emphasis to statements

New language “Few,” “little,” “fewer,” “less”
Vocabulary Nature and environment
New skill Describing quantities

Speculation and deduction

Reporting with passives

New language Indirect statements
Vocabulary Hedging language
New skill Expressing uncertainty

New language Dependent prepositions
Vocabulary Actions and consequences
New skill Changing sentence stress

Few or little?

162

New language Passive voice for reporting
Vocabulary Reporting language
New skill Distancing yourself from facts

New language “Should have” and “ought to have”
Vocabulary Time markers
New skill Expressing regret about the past

Actions and consequences

Vocabulary Media and celebrity

Modal verbs in the future

190

New language “Will be able to,” “will have to”
Vocabulary Legal terms
New skill Expressing future ability and obligation
158

Modal verbs overview
New language Using modal verbs
Vocabulary Modal verbs
New skill Asking, offering, and predicting

194

Vocabulary Customs and cultures

198

Talking about groups

200

New language Using adjectives as nouns
Vocabulary Countries and nationalities
New skill Generalizing politely

Old and new situations

Future hopes

The future in the past

Expressing reactions

212

244

248

New language Informal discourse markers
Vocabulary Advanced prefixes
New skill Structuring conversation

Getting things done

216
218

New language “Have / get something done”
Vocabulary Services and repairs
New skill Describing things people do for you

220

New language Complex agreement
Vocabulary Collective nouns
New skill Using the correct agreement

226

New language “So” and “such” for emphasis
Vocabulary Medical science
New skill Emphasizing descriptions

230

New language Generic “the”
Vocabulary Exploration and invention
New skill Using advanced articles

Complex agreement

“So” and “such”

New language The future perfect
Vocabulary Life plans
New skill Making plans and predictions

New language “Would” and “was going to”
Vocabulary Changing plans
New skill Saying what you thought

240

New language Reduced infinitives
Vocabulary Music and performance
New skill Avoiding repetition

New language The future continuous with “will”
Vocabulary Polite requests
New skill Planning your career

The future perfect

Shortening infinitives

208

New language “Wish” with “would” or “could”
Vocabulary Hopes for the future
New skill Talking about future hopes and wishes

The future continuous

236

New language Substitution
Vocabulary Books and reading
New skill Replacing phrases

New language Concrete and abstract nouns
Vocabulary Education systems
New skill Talking about abstract ideas

Vocabulary Technology and the future

Leaving words out

Substituting words

204

New language Articles
Vocabulary Commonly misspelled words
New skill Saying words with silent letters

Abstract ideas

234

New language Ellipsis
Vocabulary Entertainment
New skill Leaving out unneccessary words

New language “Be used to” and “get used to”
Vocabulary Moving and living abroad
New skill Talking about old and new situations

Articles

Vocabulary Art and culture

Using articles to generalize

252

256

260

264

Answers

268

Index

286

How the course works
English for Everyone is designed for people who want to teach
themselves the English language. Like all language courses, it
covers the core skills: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation,
listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Unlike in other courses,
the skills are taught and practiced as
Giving advice and opinions
visually as possible, using images and
graphics to help you understand and
remember. The best way to learn is to
work through the book in order, making
full use of the audio available on the
website and app. Turn to the practice
book at the end of each unit to reinforce
your learning with additional exercises.
When you want to give advice or make recommendations,
you can use a variety of modal verbs. You can vary the
strength of your advice by using different modals.

Giving advice and opinions
When you want to give advice or make recommendations,
you can use a variety of modal verbs. You can vary the
strength of your advice by using different modals.

Fill in the GaPs with the recommendations From the Panel

New language Modals for advice and opinion
Vocabulary Recommendations
New skill Giving advice and opinions

mark aLL The recommendaTions

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE PANEL

New language Modals for advice and opinion
Vocabulary Recommendations
New skill Giving advice and opinions

KEY LANGUAGE MAKING RECOMMENDATIONS

One of the most common ways of recommending something
or making a suggestion is to use modal verbs. When you offer
advice, you often also give your opinion about a topic.

listen to the audio and mark whether victor liked or disliked
each activity

TIP

LisTen To The audio and mark The revieW ThaT
mosT cLoseLY maTches charLoTTe’s opinion

You can add emphasis by
putting “really” in front
of “should,” “ought to,”
and “must.”

General suggestion.

Stronger suggestion.

38

39

038-041_Unit9_Adv_Giving_advice_and_opinions.indd 38

22/01/16 10:32 pm 038-041_Unit9_Adv_Giving_advice_and_opinions.indd 39

Very strong suggestion.

MARK THE SPEECH BUBBLES THAT INCLUDE RECOMMENDATIONS

Unit number The book is divided
into units. The unit number helps
you keep track of your progress.

22/01/2016 10:44

Modules Each unit is broken down
into modules, which should be done
in order. You can take a break from
learning after completing any module.

Learning points Every unit
begins with a summary of
the key learning points.

You can use the third conditional to describe an unreal
past, or events that did not happen. This is useful for
talking about regrets you have about the past.

COURSE BOOK

41

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Conditional tenses

22/01/16 10:32 pm

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHETHER JEFF LIKED
OR DISLIKED EACH ACTIVITY

40

040-043_289759_EFE_09.indd 40

PRACTICE BOOK

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE CORRECT TENSES
TO MAKE SENTENCES IN THE THIRD CONDITIONAL

New language The third conditional
Vocabulary Environmental threats
New skill Talking about an unreal past

KEY LANGUAGE THE THIRD CONDITIONAL
THIRD CONDITIONAL

SECOND CONDITIONAL

Use the third conditional to describe
unreal situations in the past.

The second conditional is used to
describe unreal situations in the present.

Language learning
Modules with colored
backgrounds teach new
vocabulary and grammar.
Study these carefully
before moving on to
the exercises.

KEY LANGUAGE FORMAL INVERSION
You can make the
third conditional
more formal by
inverting the
subject and “had,”
and dropping “if.”

This is used more in formal and
academic written English.

HOW TO FORM THE THIRD CONDITIONAL
“IF”

“HAD” + PAST PARTICIPLE

The “if “ clause is the
unreal past condition.

“WOULD / COULD / MIGHT”

Using different modals varies the
certainty of the imagined result.

“HAVE” + PAST PARTICIPLE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK THE THINGS
THAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED

The conditional clause
is the unreal result.

ANOTHER WAY TO SAY THE THIRD CONDITIONAL
The past perfect continuous can also
follow “if ” in the third conditional.

Often “have” is contracted
when spoken.

Sentences in the third conditional can be reordered
without a comma so the “if ” clause is second.

124

125

124-129_289759_EFE_32.indd 124

FREE AUDIO
website and app
www.dkefe.com
8

22/01/2016 10:45 124-129_289759_EFE_32.indd 125

Audio support Most modules
have supporting audio
recordings of native English
speakers to help you improve
your speaking and listening skills.

22/01/2016 10:45

Exercises Modules with
white backgrounds
contain exercises that help
you practice your new
skills to reinforce learning.

Language modules
New language points are taught in carefully graded stages, starting with a simple
explanation of when they are used, then offering further examples of common
usage, and a detailed breakdown of how key constructions are formed.

Two comparatives together

Module number Every module
is identified with a unique number,
You can use two comparatives in a sentence to show the
so you can track your progress and
effect of an action. You can also use them to show that
easily locate any related audio.
something is changing.

Module heading The teaching

New language Two comparatives together
topic appears here, along with
Vocabulary Age and population
a brief introduction.
New skill Expressing cause, effect, and change

KEY LANGUAGE TWO COMPARATIVES TOGETHER
You can make
comparisons that
show cause and
effect by using two
comparatives in
one sentence.

Sample language New language points
are introduced in context. Colored
highlights make new constructions easy
to spot, and annotations explain them.
Implies that training causes
you to get stronger.

Graphic guide Clear, simple visuals help
to explain the meaning of new language
forms and when to use them, and also
act as an aid to learning and recall.

FURTHER EXAMPLES TWO COMPARATIVES TOGETHER

Supporting audio This symbol
indicates that the model sentences
featured in the module are available
as audio recordings.
HOW TO FORM TWO COMPARATIVES TOGETHER
“THE”

COMPARATIVE
EXPRESSION

SUBJECT

VERB

COMPARATIVE
EXPRESSION

“THE”

SUBJECT

VERB

Formation guide Visual guides
break down English grammar into its
simplest parts, showing you how to
recreate even complex formations.

62

Vocabulary
TRAVEL AND TOURISM

062-065_289759_EFE_15.indd 62

22/01/2016 10:44

Vocabulary Throughout the book,
vocabulary modules list the most useful
English words and phrases, with visual
cues to help you remember them.

Write-on lines You are
encouraged to write your own
translations of English words to
create your own reference pages.
30

030-031_289759_EFE_06_VOCAB_TRAVEL.indd 30

22/01/2016 10:43

9

Practice modules
Each exercise is carefully graded to drill
and test the language taught in the
corresponding course book units.
REWRITE THE
CORRECTING
THE ERRORS
Working through
theSENTENCES
exercises
alongside
the course book will help you remember
what you have learned and become
more fluent. Every exercise is introduced
with a symbol to indicate which skill is
being practiced.

GRAMMAR
Apply new language rules
in different contexts.

VOCABULARY
Cement your understanding
of key vocabulary.

READING
Examine target language
in real-life English contexts.

SPEAKING
Compare your spoken English
to model audio recordings.

LISTENING
Test your understanding
of spoken English.
Exercise instruction Every
exercise is introduced with
a brief instruction, telling
you what you need to do.

Module number Every module
is identified with a unique
number, so you can easily locate
answers and related audio.

KEY LANGUAGE SUBSTITUTING WITH “SO” AND “NOT”
FILL IN THE GAPS USING “COULD,” “WOULD,” OR “WOULDN’T”

In positive clauses after verbs of
thinking, you can use “so” to
avoid repetition. Use “not” or
“not… so” in negative sentences.

Sample answer The first question
of each exercise is answered for
you, to help make the task easy to
understand.

FURTHER
EXAMPLES SUBSTITUTING
NEGATIVES
WITH “NOT… SO” AND “NOT”
Supporting
audio This symbol
shows
“not… so” with “think,”
that the answers to “believe,”
theUseexercise
are
“expect,” and “imagine.”
available as audio tracks. Listen to
them after completing the exercise.
Use either “not” or
“not… so” with “appear,”
“seem,” and “suppose.”

CHECKLIST

Supporting graphics
Visual cues are given
to help you understand
the exercises.

“Wish” with “would” or “could”

Space for writing
You are encouraged
to write your answers
in the book for future
reference.

Hopes for the future

218-219_289759_EFE_57.indd 219

Use “not” with “hope,”
“assume,” and “be afraid”
(when “afraid” means “sorry”).

Talking about future hopes and wishes

219

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO, SPEAKING OUT LOUD USING SUBSTITUTION

22/01/2016 16:48

Listening exercise This
symbol indicates that you
should listen to an audio
track in order to answer the
questions in the exercise.
CHECKLIST
Substitution
Books and reading
Replacing This
phrasessymbol
LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND DECIDE WHICH THINGS
ACTUALLY HAPPENED
Speaking exercise

240-243_289759_EFE_63.indd 243

10

CHECKLIST
“Would” and “was going to”

Changing plans

Saying what you thought

indicates that you should say your
answers out loud, then compare
them to model recordings
included in your audio files.

243

22/01/2016 19:52

Audio
English for Everyone features extensive supporting audio materials.
You are encouraged to use them as much as you can, to improve
your understanding of spoken English, and to make your own
accent and pronunciation more natural. Each file can be played,
paused, and repeated as often as you like, until you are confident
you understand what has been said.
LISTENING EXERCISES
This symbol indicates that you should
listen to an audio track in order to
answer the questions in the exercise.

FREE AUDIO
website and app
www.dkefe.com

SUPPORTING AUDIO
This symbol indicates that extra audio
material is available for you to listen
to after completing the module.

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

Track your progress
The course is designed to make it easy to monitor your progress,
with regular summary and review modules. Answers are provided
for every exercise, so you can see how well you have understood
each teaching point.
RESPOND TO THE AUDIO, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

Checklists Every unit ends with a
checklist, where you can check off
the new skills you have learned.

Audio This symbol
indicates that the
answers can also
be listened to.

CHECKLIST
Introductory “it”

Talents and abilities

Answers Find the
answers to every
exercise printed at
the back of the book.

Talking about your abilities

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 1–5
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

Check boxes Use these boxes
Review modules At the end of a
to mark the skills you feel
ACTION AND STATE VERBS
group of units, you will find a more
comfortable with. Go back and
CHECKLISTreview module, summarizing
detailed
review anything you feel you
COLLOCATIONS
Introductory
“it”
Talents and
abilities
Talking about your abilities
the language
you have
learned.
need to practice further.
PRESENT TENSES

ADJECTIVE ORDER

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 1–5

INTRODUCTORY “IT”

NEW LANGUAGE

PRESENT TENSES

ACTION AND STATE VERBS

026-029_289759_EFE_05.indd 29

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

29

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COLLOCATIONS

ADJECTIVE ORDER

INTRODUCTORY “IT”

Exercise numbers
Match these numbers
to the unique identifier
at the top-left corner
of each exercise.

29

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11

Making conversation
Verbs have various forms in the present tense, including
continuous and perfect. You need to understand these
differences when making question tags.

New language Present tenses
Vocabulary Meeting new people
New skill Using question tags

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS
PRESENT SIMPLE

The present simple refers to something
that happens in general or as part of a
daily routine.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

The present continuous refers to something
that is happening right now and will
continue for a limited amount of time.

REWRITE THE NOTE, CORRECTING THE HIGHLIGHTED ERRORS

12

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT PERFECT AND PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
PRESENT PERFECT

Use the present perfect to talk about the
recent past or general experiences in a
lifetime up until now.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Use the present perfect continuous to talk
about an action that started in the past, but
is continuing until now or has present results.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT PERFECT
OR THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

13

KEY LANGUAGE QUESTION TAGS
If the main clause
of the sentence is
positive, the question
tag is negative, and
vice versa. In most
cases, the question
tag uses the verb “do.”

If the main verb
is “be,” “be” is also
used in the
question tag.

Question tags are small questions added to the
end of a statement in informal conversation.

The negative question
form of “I am” is “aren’t I.”

If the main clause
of the sentence
contains an auxiliary
verb or a modal
verb, the question
tag uses this verb.

MATCH THE STATEMENTS TO THE CORRECT QUESTION TAGS

14

KEY LANGUAGE INTONATION WITH QUESTION TAGS
If the intonation goes up
at the end of the question
tag, it is a question
requiring an answer.

If the intonation goes down
at the end of a question tag,
the speaker is just inviting
the listener to agree.

LISTEN TO THE SENTENCES
AND MARK WHETHER OR NOT
AN ANSWER IS REQUIRED

ADD QUESTION TAGS TO THE
SENTENCES AND SAY THEM WITH
BOTH TYPES OF INTONATION

CHECKLIST
Present tenses

Meeting new people

Using question tags

15

Action and state verbs
Verbs that describe actions or events are known as
“action” or “dynamic” verbs, whereas those that describe
states are known as “state” or “stative” verbs.

New language State verbs in continuous forms
Vocabulary Action and state verbs
New skill Describing states

KEY LANGUAGE ACTION AND STATE VERBS
Action verbs can be used in simple and continuous forms.
State verbs are not usually used in continuous forms.
ACTION

STATE

KEY LANGUAGE USING STATE VERBS IN CONTINUOUS FORMS
Some verbs can be both action and state verbs. When these verbs
are describing an action, they can be used in continuous forms.
ACTION

STATE

Other state verbs can be used in continuous forms. They keep their stative
meaning, but emphasize a change, development, or temporary situation.
CONTINUOUS FORM

16

SIMPLE FORM

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
State verbs in continuous forms

Action and state verbs

Describing states

17

Using collocations
Collocations are often formed of two words, but
can contain more. Using them will make you a more
fluent English speaker.

New language Collocations
Vocabulary Beliefs and opinions
New skill Talking about your life

KEY LANGUAGE COLLOCATIONS
Collocations are pairs
or groups of words
that naturally go
together and sound
“right” to experienced
users of a language.

“Light” can have a similar meaning to “low” (“not much”),
but does not sound natural next to “opinion.”

“Low” can have a similar meaning to “light,”
but does not collocate with “rain.”

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL
TO CREATE MORE COLLOCATIONS

18

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE COLLOCATIONS

19

READ MARIAM’S BLOG AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
USING FULL SENTENCES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MATCH THE EVENTS TO WHEN
THEY HAPPENED

20

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

USE “WHEN” AND “WHILE” TO DESCRIBE THE
EVENTS ON THE TIMELINE, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

TIP

Use “when” for
completed actions
and “while” for
continuous
actions.

CHECKLIST
Collocations

Beliefs and opinions

Talking about your life

21

Complex descriptions
When you describe something using more than one
adjective, the adjectives usually have to go in a specific
order. There are several categories of adjectives.

New language General and specific adjectives
Vocabulary Personalities
New Skill Ordering adjectives

KEY LANGUAGE ADJECTIVE ORDER
Opinion adjectives come before
factual ones in a sentence. General
opinion adjectives always come
before specific opinion adjectives.

OPINION ADJECTIVES

“Nice” is a general opinion
adjective. It can describe
lots of different things.

FACT ADJECTIVE

“Friendly” is a specific opinion
adjective. It usually only
describes people or animals.

FURTHER EXAMPLES ADJECTIVE ORDER

HOW TO FORM ADJECTIVE ORDER
Like opinion adjectives, fact adjectives must go in a particular order.
OPINION ADJECTIVES

GENERAL

22

SPECIFIC

FACT ADJECTIVES

SIZE

SHAPE

AGE

COLOR

MATERIAL

WRITE THE ADJECTIVES FROM THE PANEL IN THE CORRECT GROUPS
GENERAL

SPECIFIC

SIZE

SHAPE

AGE

COLOR

MATERIAL

WRITE THE ADJECTIVES IN THE CORRECT ORDER

23

READ THE PERFORMANCE REVIEWS AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK THE CORRECT SUMMARY
A manager is talking to her employee, Paul, about
his performance at work during the past year.

24

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE NEGATIVE PREFIXES IN THE PANEL

FIND 10 ADJECTIVES IN THE GRID AND WRITE THEM
UNDER THE CORRECT HEADING
POSITIVE ADJECTIVES

NEGATIVE ADJECTIVES

CHECKLIST
General and specific adjectives

Personalities

Ordering adjectives

25

Making general statements
It is very useful to know how to start sentences with the
word “it” in English. You can use “it is” at the beginning of
a sentence to make a general statement about something.

New language Introductory “it”
Vocabulary Talents and abilities
New skill Expressing general truths

KEY LANGUAGE INTRODUCTORY “IT”
Certain set phrases beginning “it is” can be used at the
start of a sentence. “It” is the subject of the sentence, and
can be used to express a general truth or belief.
“IT” CLAUSE

INFINITIVE CLAUSE

Some “it” clauses are generally
followed by a “to” infinitive.

“IT” CLAUSE

“THAT” CLAUSE

Some “it” clauses are often followed
by “that” clauses.

FURTHER EXAMPLES INTRODUCTORY “IT”

26

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

KEY LANGUAGE LEADING WITH AN INFINITIVE PHRASE
When you want to
emphasize the contents
of the infinitive clause,
you can put it at the
front of the sentence.

The construction with “it” at the
start is much more common.

Placing the infinitive clause at the start
works particularly well with short sentences.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

27

READ THE FORUM POSTS
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

FILL IN THE GAPS TO CREATE COLLOCATIONS USING
THE PHRASES IN 5.6

28

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Introductory “it”

Talents and abilities

Expressing general truths

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 1–5
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

PRESENT TENSES

ACTION AND STATE VERBS

COLLOCATIONS

ADJECTIVE ORDER

INTRODUCTORY “IT”

29

Vocabulary
TRAVEL AND TOURISM

30

31

Phrasal verbs
Phrasal verbs occur in many different forms. They have
two or more parts, which are sometimes separable.
They are very common, especially in spoken English.

New language Phrasal verbs overview
Vocabulary Travel
New skill Using complex phrasal verbs

KEY LANGUAGE PHRASAL VERBS
Phrasal verbs contain a verb
and one or more particles.
One verb can use different
particles to form many
different phrasal verbs.
The verb agrees with the subject.

The particle never changes.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS IN THE
PHRASAL VERBS

KEY LANGUAGE SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS
If a phrasal verb has a direct
object, the direct object can
sometimes go between the
verb and the particle.

If the direct object is
a pronoun, it must go
between the verb and
the particle.

32

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
SEPARATING THE PHRASAL VERBS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES
USING PRONOUNS

KEY LANGUAGE THREE-WORD PHRASAL VERBS
Some phrasal verbs
are made up of more
than two words. In
such cases, the
spoken stress falls on
the second word.

VERB + PARTICLE + PREPOSITION

The stress is on “up” here.

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS USING THE
PHRASAL VERBS IN THE PANEL

33

READ THE ARTICLE AND NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER
THEY HAPPENED

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Top travel writer Maria Soames is talking about
how she first became interested in travel writing.

34

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE PHRASAL VERBS

LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND USE THE PHRASAL VERBS FROM 7.10
TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES

CHECKLIST
Phrasal verbs overview

Travel

Using complex phrasal verbs

35

Narrative tenses
When telling a story, even if you’re just talking about
something that happened recently, you need to use a
variety of tenses so that the story can be understood easily.

New language The past perfect continuous
Vocabulary Travel adjectives and idioms
New skill Talking about a variety of past actions

KEY LANGUAGE NARRATIVE TENSES
You can use different past tenses to show when past
actions or states overlap, or to say which took place first.

PAST SIMPLE

A specific finished time period (“last summer”)
is specified, so the the past simple is used.

The past simple describes
actions or states that
happened in a specific
finished time period.

PAST CONTINUOUS

The past continuous describes
an action that began before,
and possibly continued after,
another past action.

PAST PERFECT

The past perfect describes
an action or state that
happened before
something else in the past.

36

You often use the past simple and the past continuous
together to say that one action interrupted a longer one.

This action happened before something else in the
past (the trip abroad), so the past perfect is used.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE
OR PAST CONTINUOUS

COMPLETE THE SENTENCES USING THE PAST PERFECT, SPEAKING
OUT LOUD

37

KEY LANGUAGE THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
You use the past perfect
continuous to describe
an action or activity that
was happening before
another moment
in the past.

HOW TO FORM THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
SUBJECT

“HAD”

“BEEN”

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

REST OF SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS INTO THE PAST PERFECT
CONTINUOUS

38

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
MARK THE CORRECT SUMMARY

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS
TO THE PHRASES USED IN 8.8

CHECKLIST
The past perfect continuous

Travel adjectives and idioms

Talking about a variety of past actions

39

Giving advice and opinions
When you want to give advice or make recommendations,
you can use a variety of modal verbs. You can vary the
strength of your advice by using different modals.

New language Modals for advice and opinion
Vocabulary Recommendations
New skill Giving advice and opinions

KEY LANGUAGE MAKING RECOMMENDATIONS
One of the most common ways of recommending something
or making a suggestion is to use modal verbs. When you offer
advice, you often also give your opinion about a topic.
General suggestion.

Stronger suggestion.

Very strong suggestion.

MARK THE SPEECH BUBBLES THAT INCLUDE RECOMMENDATIONS

40

TIP

You can add emphasis by
putting “really” in front
of “should,” “ought to,”
and “must.”

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE PANEL

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHETHER JEFF LIKED
OR DISLIKED EACH ACTIVITY

41

KEY LANGUAGE GIVING ADVICE
You can also use modals to give advice based on facts. These can
highlight the negative consequences of ignoring the advice.

General advice.

Strong advice; there are negative
consequences if it is not followed.

OTHER WAYS TO GIVE ADVICE
You can also give advice
using the phrases
“If I were you…” and
“You had better…”
(usually contracted
to “You’d better…”).

This is a fixed phrase for giving advice
as if you were the listener.

TIP

You might hear people
say, “If I was you…”
but this is incorrect
in formal English.

This is used to give very strong advice.
It may even suggest a threat.

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, CHOOSING THE CORRECT WORDS

42

READ ANNE’S POSTCARD
AND MARK WHAT SHE
LIKED AND DISLIKED

WRITE A POSTCARD RECOMMENDING A TRIP USING THE PROMPTS

CHECKLIST
Modals for advice and opinion

Recommendations

Giving advice and opinions

43

Making predictions
When you talk about a future event, you might need to
say how likely it is that the event will happen. There are
a number of ways that you can do this.

New language Degrees of likelihood
Vocabulary Idioms about time
New skill Talking about possibilities

KEY LANGUAGE DEGREES OF LIKELIHOOD
You can use different constructions to show how likely you think something is to
happen. These range from certainty that it won’t happen to certainty that it will happen.

44

MATCH THE STATEMENTS TO THE CORRECT PREDICTIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO
AND MATCH THE PICTURES
TO THE PHRASES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
MARK THE STRESSED SYLLABLES

45

READ THE ARTICLE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

46

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE IDIOMS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Degrees of likelihood

Idioms about time

Talking about possibilities

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 7–10
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

PHRASAL VERBS

NARRATIVE TENSES
THE PAST PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
MAKING
RECOMMENDATIONS
GIVING ADVICE

DEGREES OF LIKELIHOOD

47

Vocabulary
FAMILY AND RELATIONSHIPS

48

49

Using discourse markers
Discourse markers can be used to show a relationship
between two sentences, or parts of a sentence. This can
be cause, effect, emphasis, contrast, or comparison.

New language Linking information
Vocabulary Family history
New skill Talking about relationships

KEY LANGUAGE INFORMAL LINKING DISCOURSE MARKERS
Some discourse markers are mostly used
in informal writing and speech.
Shows contrast.

Shows comparison.

Shows cause.

Shows effect.

Shows emphasis.

50

TIP

To emphasize the
relationship between
words when speaking, you
can add stress to the
discourse marker.

REWRITE THESE PAIRS OF SENTENCES USING THE DISCOURSE MARKERS
TO CONNECT THEM

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MATCH THE PAIRS OF PICTURES

51

KEY LANGUAGE FORMAL LINKING DISCOURSE MARKERS
Some discourse markers are used most often
in formal writing and speaking situations.
Shows contrast.

Shows comparison.

Shows cause.

Shows effect.

Shows emphasis.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING FORMAL DISCOURSE MARKERS

52

SAY EACH SENTENCE OUT LOUD, USING THE MOST APPROPRIATE
DISCOURSE MARKER

READ THE ADVERTISEMENT
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Linking information

Family history

Talking about relationships

53

Past habits and states
When you talk about habits or states in the past you can
use “used to” or “would.” English often uses these forms
to contrast the past with the present.

New language “Used to” and “would”
Vocabulary Family values
New skill Contrasting the past with the present

KEY LANGUAGE “USED TO”
You can use “used to”
with an infinitive to
talk about past habits.

You can also use it to
talk about fixed states
at some indefinite
time in the past.

Refers to a past habit.

Refers to a past state.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “USED TO”

ANOTHER WAY TO SAY “USED TO” WITH HABITS
You can also use “would” to talk about
past habits. It is a little bit more formal.

54

“Used” becomes “use” in the
question and negative forms.

COMMON MISTAKES “USED TO”
You cannot use “used to” when you’re talking about definite time frames
in the past, or if you said you did something a certain number of times.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN BRACKETS

REWRITE THE HIGHLIGHTED
PHRASES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

55

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Rui and Livia are having a debate
about changing family values.

READ THE CLUES AND WRITE THE ANSWERS IN THE CORRECT
PLACES ON THE GRID

56

READ THE BLOG POST AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

CHECKLIST
“Used to” and “would”

Family values

Contrasting the past with the present

57

Comparing and contrasting
Using “as… as” is a very flexible way to make comparisons.
You can use it to compare and contrast quantities and
qualities of people, objects, situations, and ideas.

New language “As… as” comparisons
Vocabulary Adjective–noun collocations
New skill Comparing and contrasting

KEY LANGUAGE “AS... AS” COMPARISONS
You can use “as… as” with an adjective to compare things that are similar
and “not as… as” or “not so... as” to contrast things that are different.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “AS… AS” COMPARISONS
You can modify the “as… as” structure to make
it more detailed or to add emphasis.
Emphasizing equality.

Comparing similarity.

This has a very similar meaning to “almost as” but contrasts
the difference rather than comparing the similarity.

Specific degree of difference.

Emphasizing difference.

58

LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND MAKE A MODIFIED “AS… AS” COMPARISON,
SPEAKING OUT LOUD

KEY LANGUAGE “AS... AS” COMPARISONS WITH ADVERBS
You can also use the “as… as” structure with adverbs,
often followed by expressions of ability or possibility.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

59

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL
TO CREATE COLLOCATIONS

60

TIP

Words that collocate
with an adjective often
collocate with its
opposite. For example,
“heavy rain” and
“light rain.”

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS
IN THE PANEL

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE PHRASES

CHECKLIST
“As… as” comparisons

Adjective–noun collocations

Comparing and contrasting

61

Two comparatives together
You can use two comparatives in a sentence to show the
effect of an action. You can also use them to show that
something is changing.

New language Two comparatives together
Vocabulary Age and population
New skill Expressing cause, effect, and change

KEY LANGUAGE TWO COMPARATIVES TOGETHER
You can make
comparisons that
show cause and
effect by using two
comparatives in
one sentence.
Implies that training causes
you to get stronger.

FURTHER EXAMPLES TWO COMPARATIVES TOGETHER

HOW TO FORM TWO COMPARATIVES TOGETHER
“THE”

62

COMPARATIVE
EXPRESSION

SUBJECT

VERB

“THE”

COMPARATIVE
EXPRESSION

SUBJECT

VERB

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

63

ANOTHER WAY TO USE TWO
COMPARATIVES TOGETHER

MATCH THE QUESTIONS TO
THE CORRECT ANSWERS

Double comparatives that end with “the better” can be
made shorter by losing the subjects and the verbs.

This expression
means people
are welcome.

KEY LANGUAGE TWO COMPARATIVES TOGETHER
A comparative can be
repeated to show that
something is changing.
The repetition emphasizes
that the change is ongoing.

READ THE ARTICLE
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

64

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
IN FULL SENTENCES
A radio station is reporting
on aging populations.

CHECKLIST
Two comparatives together

Age and population

Expressing cause, effect, and change

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 12–15
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

INFORMAL LINKING
DISCOURSE MARKERS
FORMAL LINKING
DISCOURSE MARKERS
“USED TO” AND “WOULD”

“AS... AS” COMPARISONS
TWO COMPARATIVES
TOGETHER

65

Vocabulary
STUDYING

66

67

Taking notes
Discourse markers can help you to organize language
to make it easier for the listener or reader to follow.
Listening for them is very useful when taking notes.

New language Organizing information
Vocabulary Academic life
New skill Taking notes

KEY LANGUAGE FORMAL ORGANIZING DISCOURSE MARKERS
Some discourse markers indicate what is coming
next. They help organize paragraphs and longer
passages of formal text.

TIP

Discourse markers
often go at the
beginning of a clause
or sentence.

Sequencing markers can help
you order information.

Some markers introduce new or additional points.

Other markers highlight examples.

Conclusion markers are used when summing up.

READ THE LEAFLET AND PUT THE DISCOURSE MARKERS IN CATEGORIES

68

SEQUENCING

EXAMPLES

ADDING

CONCLUDING

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
A talk is being given
about Welcome Week,
when college students
arrive for the first time.

KEY LANGUAGE INFORMAL ORGANIZING DISCOURSE MARKERS
You can use a number
of general discourse
markers to move from
one topic to another in
conversational English.

Here, “Right” gets attention before
saying something important.

Here, “OK” acknowledges that
you have heard the other speaker.

Here, “So” indicates that you
are reaching a conclusion.

69

KEY LANGUAGE THE ZERO CONDITIONAL
You can use the
zero conditional to
talk about things
that are generally
or always true.

“When” can sometimes be used instead of “if.”

“Unless” means “if… not.” (If you don’t have
a lot of money, don’t join every club.)

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE
CORRECT ENDINGS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

70

LISTEN TO THE LECTURE AND CHOOSE THE BEST SUMMARY NOTES

LISTEN TO THE REST OF THE LECTURE AND WRITE NOTES
AS YOU LISTEN

CHECKLIST
Organizing information

Academic life

Taking notes

71

Speaking approximately
English has a number of useful phrases to describe
approximate quantities and amounts. You can use them
when a number is unknown or roughly accurate.

New language Generalization
Vocabulary Approximate quantity phrases
New skill Talking about numbers

KEY LANGUAGE APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES
If you have specific figures, it may be useful to give them. However, you may need to
use more general terms if you do not have the figures or you want to avoid repetition.

“Some” is a very unspecific word. The only numbers
it could not mean in this example are none, one, or 15.

FURTHER EXAMPLES APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES
A minority is less than half, but
often refers to much less than half.

“Most” and “majority”
refer to more than half.

These unspecific references could
mean a majority or minority of cases.

72

TIP

“Minority” and
“majority” are often
qualified, for example
“small minority” or
“vast majority.”

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND NUMBER THE INFOGRAPHICS
IN THE ORDER THEY ARE MENTIONED

KEY LANGUAGE APPROXIMATE STATISTICS
You can make statistics more general by modifying them
with words such as “approximately,” “well,” or “just.”

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

73

KEY LANGUAGE SURPRISING NUMBERS
Certain expressions are used to show that a
particular number or quantity is surprising.

This indicates that €100 is a
surprisingly large amount of money.

This indicates that $5 is a surprisingly
small amount of money.

This indicates that 25 is a
surprisingly large number of events.

This indicates that 2 is a surprisingly
small number of days.

READ THE LEAFLET AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

74

KEY LANGUAGE QUESTIONING GENERALIZATIONS
One polite way of showing
that you disagree with a
generalization is to question
it. Use questions like
“Is that so?,” “Really?,” “Is
that right?,” and “Are you
sure?” before challenging a
generalization.
You can disagree
with the comment
after your question.

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO, SPEAKING OUT LOUD AND QUESTIONING
THE GENERALIZATIONS WITH FACTS FROM THE LEAFLET IN 18.7

CHECKLIST
Generalization

Approximate quantity phrases

Talking about numbers

75

Changing emphasis
There are a number of ways that you can change emphasis
in English. One way is to use a less common grammatical
structure, such as the passive voice.

New language The passive voice
Vocabulary Online learning
New skill Changing sentence emphasis

KEY LANGUAGE THE PASSIVE VOICE
In a passive sentence, the
emphasis is taken away
from the agent (the person
or thing doing the action),
and put on the action itself
(or the person or object
receiving it).

The focus is on the many people.

The subject of the active verb is the “people.”

The focus is on the book.

The subject of the passive verb is the “book.”

WHEN TO USE THE PASSIVE VOICE
The passive is used when
the agent is obvious,
unknown, or unimportant.
It is also useful when
describing a process
where the result of the
action is important.

The agent is not specified because
the verb obviously refers to the police.

The agent is not specified because it is unknown.

The agent is not specified because it is the
process that is important, not who did it.

HOW TO FORM THE PASSIVE VOICE
To form the
passive, use “be”
with the past
participle. Use
“by” when you
want to show
the agent.

76

Use different forms of “be” for the past, continuous,
future, and perfect forms of the passive.

SUBJECT

“BE”

PAST PARTICIPLE

“BY ”

READ THE TEXT AND
CHOOSE THE BEST SUMMARY

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING THE PASSIVE VOICE

TIP

Remember that
you can sometimes
omit the agent if
the meaning is
still clear.

77

KEY LANGUAGE NOUNS BASED ON PHRASAL VERBS
Some nouns are made from phrasal verbs, often formed by joining the verb and the
particle together. When these words are spoken, the stress is usually on the verb.

Particle

Verb

Noun

Sometimes, the noun is formed by putting the particle in front
of the verb. In these cases, the spoken stress is usually on the particle.

The plural is formed by adding an “s”
to the newly-formed noun.

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE NOUNS

78

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL,
USING THE CORRECT FORM AND VOICE

CHECKLIST
The passive voice

Online learning

Changing sentence emphasis

79

Things that might happen
There are many ways to talk about hypothetical future
situations. You can use different structures to indicate
whether you think a hypothesis is likely or unlikely.

New language “What if,” “suppose,” “in case”
Vocabulary Exams and assessment
New skill Talking about hypothetical situations

KEY LANGUAGE LIKELY TO HAPPEN
If a future outcome is
likely to happen, you
can use “what if,”
“suppose,” and “in
case” followed by
the present tense
to express it.

“What if ” means
“what would happen
if a hypothetical
situation occurred?”

Present tense shows the
speaker believes this is
likely to happen.

FURTHER EXAMPLES LIKELY TO HAPPEN
“Suppose” refers to the consequences
of a hypothetical situation.

“In case” refers to being prepared
for the hypothetical situation.

MATCH THE SITUATIONS TO THE LIKELY CONSEQUENCES

80

KEY LANGUAGE UNLIKELY TO HAPPEN
If a future outcome is
possible, but unlikely
to happen, you can
also use “what if ” and
“suppose” followed
by the past tense to
express it. You can also
use “just in case” with
the present tense.

The past tense shows the speaker
thinks this is unlikely to happen.

FURTHER EXAMPLES UNLIKELY TO HAPPEN
“Suppose” and “supposing” are
interchangeable in this context.

“Just” is added to “in case” to talk about
preparation for a situation that is less likely.

The verb remains in the present
tense after “just in case.”

MARK WHETHER THE OUTCOMES ARE LIKELY OR UNLIKELY

81

KEY LANGUAGE THE FIRST AND SECOND CONDITIONALS
FIRST CONDITIONAL

You can use the first conditional to talk about realistic
future results if a realistic condition is fulfilled.
“If ” + present simple.

“Will” + infinitive.

SECOND CONDITIONAL

You can use the second conditional to predict
future results if an unlikely condition is fulfilled.
“If ” + past simple.

“Would” + infinitive.

READ THE TEXT AND ANSWER
THE QUESTIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHETHER EACH OUTCOME
IS LIKELY OR UNLIKELY

82

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
“What if,” “suppose,” “in case”

Exams and assessment

Talking about hypothetical situations

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 17–20
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

ORGANIZING DISCOURSE MARKERS

MAKING GENERALIZATIONS

THE PASSIVE VOICE
NOUNS FORMED FROM
PHRASAL VERBS
LIKELY AND UNLIKELY SITUATIONS

83

Vocabulary
WORKING

84

85

Job applications
In English, prepositions can only be followed by
a noun phrase or a gerund. This is particularly
important when talking about the order of events.

New language Prepositions and gerunds
Vocabulary Job applications
New skill Writing a résumé and cover letter

KEY LANGUAGE PREPOSITIONS AND GERUNDS
If you want to use
a verb after a
preposition, it has
to be a gerund,
which is the “-ing”
form of a verb.

Preposition

Gerund

FURTHER EXAMPLES PREPOSITIONS AND GERUNDS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

86

READ THE COVER LETTER
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE PHRASES

87

READ THE RÉSUMÉ AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

88

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
HR executive, Janice Streatham, has recorded a podcast
giving out tips on how to write a good résumé.

MARK THE MORE FORMAL SENTENCE IN EACH PAIR

CHECKLIST
Prepositions and gerunds

Job applications

Writing a résumé and cover letter

89

Asking polite questions
In English, asking questions directly can sometimes be
seen as impolite. It is very common for English speakers
to make their questions more indirect.

New language Direct and indirect questions
Vocabulary Job interviews
New skill Asking questions politely

KEY LANGUAGE POLITE OPEN QUESTIONS
If an indirect question
contains “to be,” this verb
comes after the subject.

Polite questions usually start with one of these phrases.

The auxiliary verb
“to have” also comes
after the subject in
indirect questions.

The auxiliary verb
“to do” does not
appear in indirect
questions.

REWRITE THE DIRECT QUESTIONS AS INDIRECT QUESTIONS

90

KEY LANGUAGE POLITE “YES / NO” QUESTIONS
An indirect, more
polite, way of
asking “yes / no”
questions is to use
“if ” or “whether.”
“If ” can be replaced by “whether,”
to make the question more formal.

REWRITE THE DIRECT QUESTIONS AS INDIRECT QUESTIONS
USING “IF” OR “WHETHER”

REWRITE THE INDIRECT QUESTIONS, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE
CORRECT ORDER

91

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

KEY LANGUAGE STALLING TECHNIQUES
If you need extra time to think about a difficult question before answering it, you can
start your response with a stalling phrase that indicates you are considering the question.

92

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO,
SPEAKING OUT LOUD USING
STALLING TECHNIQUES

Sunaina is interviewing
Rhodri for a job at
her company.

CHECKLIST
Direct and indirect questions

Job interviews

Asking questions politely

93

Complex verb patterns
There are several different patterns that verbs can
follow, including whether they can be followed by
an infinitive or a gerund.

New language Verb + infinitive / gerund
Vocabulary World of work
New skill Using complex verb patterns

KEY LANGUAGE VERB + INFINITIVE PATTERNS
Some verbs are followed
by an infinitive.
VERB + INFINITIVE

Other verbs must have an
object before an infinitive.
VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT PHRASE IN EACH SENTENCE

94

KEY LANGUAGE VERB + GERUND PATTERNS
Some verbs are usually
followed by a gerund
instead of an infinitive.

VERB + GERUND

VERB + OBJECT + GERUND

Some verbs can be
followed by an object
and a gerund.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

95

KEY LANGUAGE VERBS THAT NEED A PREPOSITION
Some verbs need to be
followed by a specific
preposition before an
object. Different verbs
are followed by
different prepositions.

VERB + PREPOSITION

FURTHER EXAMPLES VERBS THAT NEED A PREPOSITION

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

96

READ THE ARTICLE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

CHECKLIST
Verb + infinitive / gerund

World of work

Using complex verb patterns

97

Double object verbs
Some verbs can be followed by both a direct object and
an indirect object. Sentences using these verbs can be
ordered in a number of different ways.

New language Double object verbs
Vocabulary New businesses
New skill Talking about starting a business

KEY LANGUAGE DOUBLE OBJECT VERBS WITH NOUNS
The direct object is the person or
thing that an action happens to.
The indirect object benefits from
the same action. If the indirect
object is the focus, it comes after
the direct object plus “to” or “for.”
The indirect object can also come
before the direct object. In this
case, no preposition is needed.

DIRECT OBJECT

INDIRECT OBJECT

The preposition is dropped when
the order of the objects is reversed.

KEY LANGUAGE DOUBLE OBJECT VERBS WITH PRONOUNS
If the direct object is a pronoun,
it must come before the
indirect object.

If the indirect object is a pronoun,
it can come before or after the
direct object.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

98

KEY LANGUAGE VERBS WITH “TO” OR “FOR”
Some verbs can take either “to” or “for,” depending on the context.
“To” is usually used when there is a transfer of something, whereas
“for” is used when someone benefits from something.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD TO MAKE THE PAIRS OF
SENTENCES MATCH

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

99

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND CORRECT THE SENTENCES
Colin is talking to his friend about
starting his new business.

LISTEN AGAIN AND FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE IDIOMS BELOW

100

REWRITE THE HIGHLIGHTED
PHRASES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

CHECKLIST
Double object verbs

New businesses

Talking about starting a business

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 22–25
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

PREPOSITIONS AND GERUNDS

INDIRECT QUESTIONS

STALLING TECHNIQUES

COMPLEX VERB PATTERNS
VERBS WHICH NEED
A PREPOSITION
DOUBLE OBJECT VERBS

VERBS WITH “TO” OR “FOR”

101

Vocabulary
MEETING AND PRESENTING

102

103

Reflexive pronouns
Reflexive pronouns show that the subject of a verb
is the same as its object. They can also be used in
other situations to add emphasis.

New language Reflexive pronouns
Vocabulary Workplace language
New skill Talking about work issues

KEY LANGUAGE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
Reflexive pronouns in English are formed by adding
the suffix “-self ” or “-selves” to simple pronouns.

HOW TO FORM

104

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS
IN EACH SENTENCE

KEY LANGUAGE USING REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS FOR EMPHASIS
Sometimes reflexive pronouns are
not essential to the grammar of the
sentence, but can be used to add
emphasis in different ways.

This sentence makes sense
without a reflexive pronoun.

Adding the reflexive pronoun at the
end of the clause emphasizes that
the action was not delegated.

Adding the reflexive pronoun directly after
the subject emphasizes its importance.

FILL IN THE GAPS WITH THE MOST APPROPRIATE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

105

KEY LANGUAGE REFLEXIVE COLLOCATIONS
Many collocations contain
reflexive pronouns. They
often follow the pattern
verb plus reflexive pronoun
plus preposition.

FURTHER EXAMPLES REFLEXIVE COLLOCATIONS

TIP

Sometimes the subject
is not included, but
is implied by the
reflexive pronoun.

“You” is the implied subject
in this imperative phrase.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE REFLEXIVE PHRASES FROM THE PANEL

106

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE
PHRASAL VERBS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

CHECKLIST
Reflexive pronouns

Workplace language

Talking about work issues

107

Meeting and planning
Many verbs can be followed by another verb.
This can be a “to” infinitive (“want to eat”) or
a gerund (“enjoy cooking”).

New language Combining verbs
Vocabulary Office tasks
New skill Taking part in meetings

KEY LANGUAGE VERBS FOLLOWED BY “TO” OR “-ING”
(NO CHANGE IN MEANING)
Some verbs can be followed by a gerund (an “-ing” form)
or a “to” infinitive, with little or no change in meaning.
You can often use both forms interchangeably.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE
CORRECT ENDINGS

108

TIP

These verbs can all be
followed by “to” or
“-ing” with no change
in meaning.

KEY LANGUAGE VERBS FOLLOWED BY “TO” OR “-ING” (CHANGE IN MEANING)
Some verbs change their meaning depending
on the form of the verb that follows them.

FURTHER EXAMPLES VERBS FOLLOWED BY “TO” OR “-ING”
(CHANGE IN MEANING)
In general, the infinitive is used to describe an action that comes
after that of the main verb. The gerund is often used for an action
that happens before, or at the same time as, that of the main verb.
VERB + INFINITIVE

VERB + GERUND

109

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PANEL
INTO THE CORRECT FORMS

110

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Combining verbs

Office tasks

Taking part in meetings

111

Qualifying descriptions
There are many ways to qualify or add further detail
to adjectives. Some types of adjectives can only be
modified in certain ways.

New language Non-gradable adjectives
Vocabulary Qualifying words
New skill Adding detail to descriptions

KEY LANGUAGE NON-GRADABLE ADJECTIVES
Most adjectives can be modified with grading adverbs, such
as “slightly,” “very,” and “extremely.” Non-gradable adjectives
cannot be modified in this way. These adjectives tend to fall
into three categories: extreme, absolute, and classifying.

Gradable adjectives like “good” can
be modified with grading adverbs
like “extremely” and “very.”

Non-gradable adjectives like
“fantastic” cannot be modified
by grading adverbs.

EXTREME ADJECTIVES

Extreme adjectives are stronger
versions of gradable adjectives,
such as “awful,” “hilarious,”
“fantastic,” or “terrifying.”

The sense of “extremely” is
already incorporated here.

ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES

Absolute adjectives cannot be
graded because they describe fixed
qualities or states, such as “unique,”
“perfect,” or “impossible.”

CLASSIFYING ADJECTIVES

Classifying adjectives are used to
say that something is of a specific
type or class, such as “American,”
“nuclear,” or “medical.”

112

It is not possible for something
to be more or less unique.

WRITE THE ADJECTIVES FROM THE PANEL IN THE CORRECT CATEGORIES
EXTREME

ABSOLUTE

CLASSIFYING

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

113

KEY LANGUAGE NON-GRADING ADVERBS
Some adverbs can be used
to qualify non-gradable
adjectives. These are called
“non-grading adverbs,” and
often mean “entirely” or
“almost entirely.” They
cannot usually be used with
gradable adjectives.

FURTHER EXAMPLES NON-GRADING ADVERBS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

114

KEY LANGUAGE “REALLY,” “FAIRLY,” AND “PRETTY”
A few adverbs can be used with both gradable
and non-gradable adjectives. They are “really”
(meaning “very much”), and “pretty” and “fairly”
(both meaning “quite a lot but not very”).

TIP

Gradable

Note that “fairly” can
have a negative
connotation and so is not
normally used to suggest
something is very good
or necessary.

Non-gradable

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Two business partners, James and Maria, have just watched
several presentations from product developers. They are
discussing which products to invest in.

115

KEY LANGUAGE “QUITE”
You can use “quite” with
both gradable and
non-gradable adjectives.
In US English, it usually
means “very.” In UK
English, it weakens
gradable adjectives to
mean “not very,” but
strengthens non-gradable
adjectives to mean “very”
or “completely.”

READ THE PRODUCT REVIEWS AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

116

READ THE TEXT, THEN FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Non-gradable adjectives

Qualifying words

Adding detail to descriptions

117

Expressing purpose
There are a number of ways to express the purpose of,
or reason for, an action. You use different expressions to
describe the purpose of an object.

New language “In order to,” “so that”
Vocabulary Language of apology
New skill Expressing purpose

KEY LANGUAGE “IN ORDER TO”
You can use “in
order to” to talk
about the purpose
of an action.
ACTION

PURPOSE

OTHER WAYS TO SAY “IN ORDER TO”
Here “so as to” means exactly
the same as “in order to.”

In informal speech, “in order”
and “so as” are often dropped.

Base form of verb.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

118

KEY LANGUAGE “SO THAT”
“So that” has a similar
meaning to “in order to”
and “so as to,” but is
less formal.

“So that” is followed by subject + verb.

“So that” is often followed by modal
verbs such as “can,” “could,” and “would.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES “SO THAT”

If the main verb is in the past, the verb
after “so that” usually refers to the past.

If the main verb is in the present
tense, the verb after “so that” usually
refers to the present or future.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Peter works in the customer service department
for a home appliance company. He is talking to a
customer about an order.

119

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, JOINING THEM WITH THE GIVEN
EXPRESSION OF PURPOSE

KEY LANGUAGE GENERAL PURPOSE
Sometimes you may want to talk about why something
exists or what it is used for. You can describe a general
purpose by using “to” and “for.”

“TO” INFINITIVE
You can use a “to” infinitive when the
subject of the sentence is a person.

“FOR” + GERUND
This structure commonly answers the
question “What is it (used) for?”

“FOR” + NOUN

120

FILL IN THE GAPS USING “FOR” OR “TO”

CHECKLIST
“In order to,” “so that”

Language of apology

Expressing purpose

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 27–30
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
VERBS FOLLOWED BY “TO” OR “-ING”
(NO CHANGE IN MEANING)
VERBS FOLLOWED BY “TO” OR “-ING”
(CHANGE IN MEANING)
GRADABLE AND NON-GRADABLE
ADJECTIVES
NON-GRADING ADVERBS

“REALLY,” “FAIRLY,” “PRETTY,” “QUITE”

“IN ORDER TO,” “SO THAT”

121

Vocabulary
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

122

123

Conditional tenses
You can use the third conditional to describe an unreal
past, or events that did not happen. This is useful for
talking about regrets you have about the past.

New language The third conditional
Vocabulary Environmental threats
New skill Talking about an unreal past

KEY LANGUAGE THE THIRD CONDITIONAL
THIRD CONDITIONAL

SECOND CONDITIONAL

Use the third conditional to describe
unreal situations in the past.

The second conditional is used to
describe unreal situations in the present.

HOW TO FORM THE THIRD CONDITIONAL
“IF”

“HAD” + PAST PARTICIPLE

The “if “ clause is the
unreal past condition.

“WOULD / COULD / MIGHT”

Using different modals varies the
certainty of the imagined result.

“HAVE” + PAST PARTICIPLE

The conditional clause
is the unreal result.

ANOTHER WAY TO SAY THE THIRD CONDITIONAL
The past perfect continuous can also
follow “if ” in the third conditional.

Often “have” is contracted
when spoken.

124

Sentences in the third conditional can be reordered
without a comma so the “if ” clause is second.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE CORRECT TENSES
TO MAKE SENTENCES IN THE THIRD CONDITIONAL

KEY LANGUAGE FORMAL INVERSION
You can make the
third conditional
more formal by
inverting the
subject and “had,”
and dropping “if.”

This is used more in formal and
academic written English.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK THE THINGS
THAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED

125

PRONUNCIATION
CONTRACTED FORMS

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD USING
THE CONTRACTED FORMS

In spoken English, you will often
hear the contracted forms of
“would have,” “could have,” and
“might have.” The vowel sound
before the final “v” is a lazy
“uh” sound.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

126

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK THE CORRECT SUMMARY

127

KEY LANGUAGE “I WISH”
PRESENT REGRETS

PAST REGRETS

You can express regrets about the present in a similar
way to the second conditional by using “I wish.”

You can also use “I wish” to express regrets about the
past in a similar way to the third conditional.

“Wish” + “had” + past participle
has past meaning.

“Wish” + past
has present meaning.

ANOTHER WAY TO SAY “I WISH”
PAST REGRETS

PRESENT REGRETS

You can express stronger regrets about the present by
using “if only” and the past tense.

You can express stronger regrets about the past by
using “if only” with “had” and the past participle.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS
IN EACH SENTENCE

128

FILL IN THE GAPS TO MAKE “I WISH” AND “IF ONLY” SENTENCES

READ THE ARTICLE AND
COMPLETE THE SENTENCES

CHECKLIST
The third conditonal

Environmental threats

Talking about an unreal past

129

Past regrets
You can use “should have” or “ought to have” to talk
about past mistakes. They both signal that you wish
you had done something differently in the past.

New language “Should have” and “ought to have”
Vocabulary Time markers
New skill Expressing regret about the past

KEY LANGUAGE “SHOULD HAVE” AND “OUGHT TO HAVE”
You use “should have” or “ought to have” to express regret about
something that did not happen in the past. “Ought to” is less
common than “should” and usually sounds more formal.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “SHOULD HAVE” AND “OUGHT TO HAVE”

The negative form “ought not to have“ is
grammatically correct, but it is rarely used.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING “SHOULD HAVE” OR “SHOULDN’T HAVE”

130

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

READ THE ARTICLE
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

131

VOCABULARY TIME MARKERS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DESCRIBED

LISTEN AGAIN AND FILL THE GAPS USING THE WORDS FROM 33.6

132

READ THE ARTICLE
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
“Should have” and “ought to have”

Time markers

Expressing regret about the past

133

Actions and consequences
Unlike many parts of speech, prepositions often have
little meaning in themselves, but work to change the
meaning of the words around them.

New language Dependent prepositions
Vocabulary Actions and consequences
New skill Changing sentence stress

KEY LANGUAGE DEPENDENT PREPOSITIONS
Some words need to go with specific
“dependent” prepositions.

“Late” could not be paired with any
other preposition in this context.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE DEPENDENT PREPOSITION PHRASES
IN THE PANEL

134

FILL IN THE GAPS WITH THE CORRECT PREPOSITIONS

KEY LANGUAGE WORDS WITH MORE THAN ONE DEPENDENT PREPOSITION
Some words can pair
with more than one
preposition. The
change in preposition
often changes the
meaning of the phrase.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND CROSS OUT THE
INCORRECT PREPOSITIONS

135

PRONUNCIATION SENTENCE STRESS
You can change the meaning of a sentence by
emphasizing different words as you say it.

UNDERLINE THE WORDS YOU NEED TO STRESS AND SAY EACH
SENTENCE OUT LOUD

136

READ THE TEXT, THEN FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS
IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Dependent prepositions

Actions and consequences

Changing sentence stress

137

Few or little?
The words used to describe quantities vary according to
a number of factors, including whether you are talking
about something countable or uncountable.

New language “Few,” “little,” “fewer,” “less”
Vocabulary Nature and environment
New skill Describing quantities

KEY LANGUAGE “FEW” FOR SMALL NUMBERS
Use “few” with a plural countable noun to say that there are not many of
something. It emphasizes how small the number is. You use “a few” to
mean “some.” It emphasizes that the number, though small, is enough.

KEY LANGUAGE “LITTLE” FOR SMALL AMOUNTS

TIP

You can add “very”
to “few” and “little”
to mean “almost
none.”

Use “little” with an uncountable noun to say that there is not much of
something. It emphasizes how small the amount is. You use “a little” to
mean “some.” It emphasizes that the amount, though small, is enough.

OTHER WAYS TO USE “LITTLE” AND “FEW” FOR SMALL QUANTITIES
Informally, you can use “a (little)
bit of ” instead of “a little.”

138

“Little” and “few” can also be used as
pronouns to mean “not much / many.”

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND FILL IN THE GAPS USING
“(A) FEW” OR “(A) LITTLE”

139

KEY LANGUAGE “QUITE A FEW” AND “QUITE A BIT (OF)” FOR BIG QUANTITIES
The phrases “quite a bit of ” and “quite a few” are
understatements that actually mean “a lot” or “many.”

FILL IN THE GAPS USING “(A) FEW” AND “(A) LITTLE”

140

KEY LANGUAGE “FEWER” AND “LESS”
Confusion between
“less” and “fewer” is very
common. Remember to
use “less” with uncountable
nouns and “fewer” with
plural countable nouns.

“Issues” is a plural
countable noun.

“Fuel” is an
uncountable noun.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “FEWER” AND “LESS”

“Money” is uncountable, but
currencies like “dollars” are countable.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE
CORRECT ENDINGS

141

KEY LANGUAGE “FEWER THAN” AND “LESS THAN”
Use “less than” when talking about amounts, distances, time,
and money. Use “fewer than” for groups of people or things.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “FEWER THAN” AND “LESS THAN”

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
A local radio news station is reporting about an
environmental campaigner’s recent success.

142

FILL IN THE GAPS IN THE SUMMARY OF 35.13, USING THE PHRASES
IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
“Few,” “little,” “fewer,” “less”

Nature and environment

Describing quantities

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 32–35
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

THE THIRD CONDITIONAL

“I WISH” AND “IF ONLY”

“SHOULD HAVE” AND “OUGHT TO HAVE”

DEPENDENT PREPOSITIONS

“FEW” AND “LITTLE”

“FEWER” AND “LESS”

143

Vocabulary
TRADITION, LUCK, AND SUPERSTITION

144

145

Past possibility
You can use a variety of language to talk about possible
events in the past, and to indicate whether you agree or
disagree with speculation.

KEY LANGUAGE PAST POSSIBILITY
You can use this construction to talk
about something that you think
possibly happened in the past.

You can use this construction to talk
about something that possibly did
not happen in the past.

“Could not” can only be used
when the speaker is certain that
something did not happen.

146

New language “Might / may / could” in the past
Vocabulary Urban myths
New skill Talking about past possibility

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
IN FULL SENTENCES
Sophie is telling her friend about
an urban myth that she’s heard.

147

KEY LANGUAGE REPORTED SPEECH
In reported speech,
the main verb often
changes tense to a
past form. You may
also need to change
a time or place
reference.

In reported open questions, the subject comes
before the verb and you don’t use a question form.

The present simple “don’t”
becomes past simple “didn’t.”

“These” is replaced by
the more distant “those.”

In reported closed questions (with a “yes / no”
answer), you use “if ” or “whether.”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING REPORTED SPEECH

148

READ THE EMAIL AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE IDIOMS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
“Might / may / could” in the past

Urban myths

Talking about past possibility

149

Speculation and deduction
You can use modal verbs to describe past events with
varying degrees of certainty. These constructions are
useful for speculating about events you haven’t witnessed.

New language More uses for modal verbs
Vocabulary Phrasal verbs with “out”
New skill Speculating and making deductions

KEY LANGUAGE MODAL VERBS FOR SPECULATION AND DEDUCTION
When you’re
speculating about the
past and you’re sure
something happened,
use “must have” with
the past participle.
When you’re not sure
whether something
happened or not,
replace “must” with
“may,” “might,”
or “could.”
If you are sure
something did not
happen, use “can’t”
or “couldn’t.”

The speaker is sure.

The speaker is unsure.

The speaker is sure it is not possible.

MATCH THE PAIRS OF SENTENCES TOGETHER

150

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

151

DESCRIBE WHAT EACH PERSON MUST HAVE DONE, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK THE CORRECT SUMMARY
A radio host is talking about the unsolved
mystery of the SS Ourang Medan.

152

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASAL VERBS IN THE PANEL

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
More uses for modal verbs

Phrasal verbs with “out”

Speculating and making deductions

153

Mixed conditionals
You can use different types of conditional statements to
talk about hypothetical situations. Mixed conditionals
use more than one of these types in the same statement.

New language Mixed conditionals
Vocabulary Personality traits
New skill Talking about hypothetical situations

KEY LANGUAGE MIXED CONDITIONALS
SECOND CONDITIONAL

THIRD CONDITIONAL

Use the second conditional to talk about
hypothetical situations in the present.

Use the third conditional to talk about
hypothetical situations in the past.

PAST SIMPLE

“WOULD” + INFINITIVE

PAST PERFECT

“WOULD” + “HAVE” + PAST PARTICIPLE

MIXED CONDITIONAL

Mixed conditionals combine second and third conditionals.

FURTHER EXAMPLES MIXED CONDITIONALS
Mixed conditionals are often used to express regret.

You can use mixed conditionals
to refer to future situations.

154

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE CORRECT TENSE

155

LISTEN TO THE HOROSCOPE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

USE THE ADJECTIVES FROM THE PANEL TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES

156

READ THE ARTICLE AND CORRECT THE STATEMENTS

CHECKLIST
Mixed conditionals

Personality traits

Talking about hypothetical situations

157

Adding “-ever” to question words
Adding “-ever” to question words changes their meaning.
These new words modify the question words to mean “no
matter” or “it doesn’t matter.”

New language Words with “-ever”
Vocabulary Chance and weather phrases
New skill Joining a clause to a sentence

KEY LANGUAGE QUESTION WORDS WITH “-EVER”
You can use “-ever” words as subjects, objects, or adverbs in their own
clauses. They can also be used to join a clause to the rest of a sentence.

Here, “whichever” is an object.

Here, “whoever” is a subject.

Here, “however” is an adverb.

158

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

159

READ THE EMAIL AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

160

MATCH UP THE PAIRS OF SENTENCES THAT MEAN THE SAME THING

CHECKLIST
Words with “-ever”

Chance and weather phrases

Joining a clause to a sentence

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 37–40
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

PAST POSSIBILITY

REPORTED SPEECH

SPECULATION AND DEDUCTION

MIXED CONDITIONALS

ADDING “-EVER” TO QUESTION WORDS

161

Vocabulary
MEDIA AND CELEBRITY

162

163

Reporting with passives
One way to distance yourself from facts is to use the
passive voice and reporting verbs. This device is
commonly used in newspaper and television journalism.

New language Passive voice for reporting
Vocabulary Reporting language
New skill Distancing yourself from facts

KEY LANGUAGE REPORTING WITH PASSIVES
A number of
structures and
reporting verbs can
be used in the passive
voice to distance the
writer or speaker
from the facts.

“THAT” CLAUSE

“IT” + PASSIVE REPORTING VERB

SUBJECT +
PASSIVE REPORTING VERB

“THERE” +
PASSIVE REPORTING VERB

INFINITIVE CLAUSE

“TO BE / TO HAVE BEEN”

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES
TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

164

KEY LANGUAGE MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE
Modals in the present can be
made passive by replacing the
base form of the main verb with
“be” plus the past participle.

Modals in the past tense can be
made passive by replacing “have”
with “have been.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES MODALS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE
Modal expressing prohibition.

Modal expressing possiblity.

Modal expressing desirability
(the right thing to do).

Modal expressing
strong probability.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

165

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING THE PASSIVE VOICE

TIP

Remember that you
can sometimes omit the
agent (the person or
thing doing the action)
if the meaning
remains clear.

DESCRIBE THE NEWS OUT LOUD USING PASSIVE REPORTING LANGUAGE

166

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE CORRECT FORM
OF THE VERBS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Passive voice for reporting

Reporting language

Distancing yourself from facts

167

Making indirect statements
Sometimes you may wish to avoid giving definite facts
or personal opinions. This is known as “hedging.” Certain
words and indirect statements can help you with this.

New language Indirect statements
Vocabulary Hedging language
New skill Expressing uncertainty

KEY LANGUAGE HEDGING
Hedging words and phrases can be added
to a sentence to make its meaning less
definite or direct.
HEDGING VERBS

HEDGING ADVERBS

HEDGING PHRASES

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE HEDGING LANGUAGE IN THE PANEL

168

KEY LANGUAGE “SEEM” AND “APPEAR”
“Seem” and “appear” are words that you can use
to distance yourself from a statement. This is
useful if you are not sure if the statement is true.

“Seem” and “appear” are often followed by
another verb in the infinitive.

You can also use “It seems” or “It appears”
followed by a “that” clause.

“Would” adds even more
distance or uncertainty.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

169

READ THE ARTICLE AND WRITE THE HEDGING LANGUAGE
IN THE CORRECT PANELS

ADVERBS

170

VERBS

PHRASES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
A local news station is reporting about a
popular video that has been posted online.

FILL IN THE GAPS IN THE SUMMARY USING THE HEDGING LANGUAGE
IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Indirect statements

Hedging language

Expressing uncertainty

171

Adding emphasis
You can add emphasis, or even a sense of drama,
to a statement through grammar and pronunciation.
Inversion is one effective way to do this.

New language Inversion after adverbials
Vocabulary Media and celebrity
New skill Adding emphasis to statements

KEY LANGUAGE INVERSION AFTER NEGATIVE ADVERBIALS
In more formal or literary texts, inversion (when
the normal order of words is reversed) is used for
emphasis after negative adverbial phrases like
“not only,” “not since,” and “only when.”
In this simple sentence, the subject
comes before the verb.

After the negative adverbial, the
subject and the verb swap places.

FURTHER EXAMPLES INVERSION AFTER NEGATIVE ADVERBIALS
Negative adverbials are generally
followed by auxiliary verb + subject.

Where there is no auxiliary verb,
“do” is used.

172

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

173

KEY LANGUAGE INVERSION AFTER TIME ADVERBIALS
You can also emphasize when something
happened by using inversion after time
adverbials like “no sooner” and “never before.”
In this simple sentence, the subject
comes before the verb.

The subject (“Tina”) and the auxiliary
verb (“had”) swap places.

FURTHER EXAMPLES INVERSION AFTER TIME ADVERBIALS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES TO SHIFT THE EMPHASIS USING THE PROMPTS

174

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Two friends, Marta and Jeremy, are
discussing celebrities and their children.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

CHECKLIST
Inversion after adverbials

Media and celebrity

Adding emphasis to statements

175

Shifting focus
You can add emphasis to part of a sentence in English
by splitting it into two clauses. This allows you to focus
attention on the the new or important information.

New language Focusing with clauses
Vocabulary Phrases for emphasis
New skill Shifting focus

KEY LANGUAGE FOCUSING WITH “WHAT” CLAUSES
You can add “what” with the verb “be” to a simple statement to
make it more emphatic. This structure is often used with verbs
expressing emotions, such as “love,” “hate,” “like,” and “want.”
This has more emphasis
than “I really want to
go to bed early.”

Add “what” to the
start of the sentence.

The information that you want to focus
on is put outside the “what” clause.

FURTHER EXAMPLES FOCUSING WITH “WHAT” CLAUSES

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

176

KEY LANGUAGE FOCUSING WITH A NOUN
If the subject of the
sentence cannot be
replaced with “what”
(for example, people,
places, or times) you
can use a general
noun that has a
similar meaning.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE NOUNS IN THE PANEL

177

KEY LANGUAGE FOCUSING WITH “IT” CLAUSES
You can also emphasize
part of a sentence by
adding “it is” or “it was”
and “that.”

This has more emphasis than
“No, I met your friend Michael.”

Add “it is” or “it was”
before the noun phrase.

Add “that” before
the main verb.

Main verb moves
to the end.

FURTHER EXAMPLES FOCUSING WITH “IT” CLAUSES
The second clause is most
commonly introduced by
“that,” but “which” or
“who” (and, less formally,
“when” and “where”) can
also be used.

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO OUT LOUD, USING FOCUSING CLAUSES

178

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
A parenting expert is giving a radio interview
about social networks and digital parenting skills.

CHECKLIST
Focusing with clauses

Phrases for emphasis

Shifting focus

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 42–45
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

REPORTING WITH PASSIVES

MODALS IN THE PASSIVE

HEDGING
INVERSION AFTER NEGATIVE
ADVERBIALS
INVERSION AFTER TIME ADVERBIALS
FOCUSING WITH “WHAT” CLAUSES
AND NOUNS
FOCUSING WITH “IT” CLAUSES

179

Vocabulary
CRIME AND THE LAW

180

181

Relative clauses
Relative clauses are sections of a sentence that provide
more information about a noun in the main statement.
They can be defining or non-defining.

New language Relative clauses
Vocabulary Crime and criminals
New skill Specifying and elaborating

KEY LANGUAGE DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Relative clauses are made up of a subject, a verb, and usually an object.
They usually start with a relative pronoun, which can be the subject or
the object of the relative clause. Defining relative clauses specify which
person or thing you’re talking about in the main clause.
Here the relative
pronoun “who” is
the subject of the
relative clause.

MAIN CLAUSE
SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT

RELATIVE CLAUSE
SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT

“Who” is the subject of “are.”

Here the relative
pronoun “which” is
the object of the
relative clause.

MAIN CLAUSE
SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT

“Which” is the object of “stole.”

RELATIVE CLAUSE
OBJECT + SUBJECT + VERB

“The criminal” is the subject of “stole.”

MARK WHETHER THE RELATIVE PRONOUN IS THE SUBJECT OR
THE OBJECT OF THE RELATIVE CLAUSE

182

KEY LANGUAGE RELATIVE PRONOUNS
English uses different
relative pronouns to talk
about people and things.
THINGS

PEOPLE

HOW TO FORM DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
If the relative pronoun
is the subject of the
relative clause, it
must appear in
the sentence.

If the relative pronoun
is the object of the
relative clause, it can
be left out. You can
use “whom” when a
person is the object,
but this is very formal.

SUBJECT OF
MAIN CLAUSE

SUBJECT OF
MAIN CLAUSE

RELATIVE
PRONOUN

RELATIVE
PRONOUN

REST OF
RELATIVE CLAUSE

REST OF
RELATIVE CLAUSE

RETURN TO MAIN CLAUSE

RETURN TO MAIN CLAUSE

MATCH UP THE PARTS OF THE SENTENCES

183

KEY LANGUAGE NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Non-defining
relative clauses say
more about a noun
in the main clause.
The main clause
would still make
sense without it.
When they are in
the middle of a
sentence, they
are separated from
the main clause
by two commas.

MAIN CLAUSE

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

Comma separates the clauses.

MAIN CLAUSE

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

RETURN TO
MAIN CLAUSE

Comma comes before and after relative clause.

FURTHER EXAMPLES NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

“Whom” is only used in very formal situations.

The relative pronoun can refer
to the entire previous clause

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, ADDING COMMAS WHERE NECESSARY

184

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Five people are being
asked how they would cut
crime in the city.

CHECKLIST
Relative clauses

Crime and criminals

Specifying and elaborating

185

More relative clauses
Relative words define or describe a noun in the main
part of the sentence. Different relative words are used
depending on the nouns that they relate to.

New language Where, when, whereby, whose
Vocabulary Courtroom phrases
New skill Using relative words

KEY LANGUAGE “WHERE,” “WHEN,” AND “WHEREBY”

“Where” is the
relative word used
to refer to a place.

“When” is the
relative word used
to refer to a time.

“Whereby” is the
relative word
used to refer
to a process.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

186

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL AND “WHERE,”
“WHEN,” OR “WHEREBY”

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Two members of a jury are
talking about a burglary trial.

187

KEY LANGUAGE “WHOSE”
“Whose” is the
relative word used
to show possession
or belonging.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “WHOSE”
“Whose” can
also be used to
refer to things
that belong to
countries,
organizations,
towns, and so on.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING “WHOSE”

188

READ THE ARTICLE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

CHECKLIST
Where, when, whereby, whose

Courtroom phrases

Using relative words

189

Modal verbs in the future
Some modal verbs change form when used to talk about
the future. Others cannot be used in the future at all, and
have to be replaced with other modal verbs or phrases.

New language “Will be able to,” “will have to”
Vocabulary Legal terms
New skill Expressing future ability and obligation

KEY LANGUAGE “CAN” IN THE FUTURE
It is not
grammatically
possible to talk
about the future
using “can.”
“Will be able to”
is used instead.

“Will can” is incorrect.

The negative
is formed with
“not able to” or
“unable to.”
You can also use “will be unable to,”
but it’s less common.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES TO REFER TO THE FUTURE

190

KEY LANGUAGE “MUST” AND “HAVE TO” IN THE FUTURE
There is no future
form of “must.”
The future of
“have to” is
formed with
the auxiliary
verb “will.”

“Will must” is incorrect.

The negative
is formed by
adding “not”
between “will”
and “have.”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

191

READ THE ARTICLE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

192

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS
IN THE PANEL
A radio show is reporting
on a new law concerning
farmers’ land.

READ THE CLUES AND WRITE THE ANSWERS IN THE CORRECT
PLACES ON THE GRID

CHECKLIST
“Will be able to,” “will have to”

Legal terms

Expressing future ability and obligation

193

Modal verbs overview
Modal verbs are used to talk about likelihood, ability,
permission, and obligation, among other things.
They often refer to hypothetical situations.

New language Using modal verbs
Vocabulary Modal verbs
New skill Asking, offering, and predicting

KEY LANGUAGE MODAL VERBS
Modal verbs share certain characteristics. They don’t change form depending on the subject, they
are always followed by an infinitive, and their question and negative forms are made without “do.”

Logical deductions

Obligation

Permission

Ability

Requests

Advice and suggestions

Offers

194

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE MODAL VERBS IN THE PANEL

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

195

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

READ THE TEXT
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

196

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Simon is telling his friend about
his recent trip to the United States.

CHECKLIST
Using modal verbs

Modal verbs

Asking, offering, and predicting

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 47–50
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

DEFINING
RELATIVE CLAUSES
NON-DEFINING
RELATIVE CLAUSES
“WHERE,” “WHEN,” “WHEREBY”

“WHOSE”

“CAN” IN THE FUTURE
“MUST” AND “HAVE TO”
IN THE FUTURE
MODAL VERBS

197

Vocabulary
CUSTOMS AND CULTURES

198

199

Talking about groups
Sometimes you may want to talk generally about
groups of people or different nationalities. It is
important that you know the correct way to do this.

New language Using adjectives as nouns
Vocabulary Countries and nationalities
New skill Generalizing politely

KEY LANGUAGE NATIONALITY ADJECTIVES AS NOUNS
To make generalizations about people from a particular country, modify
the nationality adjective. If the adjective ends in “–ch,” “-sh,” “-ese,” or “-ss,”
you generally add “the.” Most other nationalities take an “s,” but not “the.”
-CH / -SH / -ESE / -SS

MOST OTHER NATIONALITIES

FURTHER EXAMPLES NATIONALITY ADJECTIVES AS NOUNS

WRITE THE CORRECT NAMES FOR THE DIFFERENT GROUPS OF PEOPLE

200

KEY LANGUAGE “THE” WITH ADJECTIVES FOR CERTAIN GROUPS
Some groups or classes of
people are also referred to
using nouns that have been
formed from adjectives.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “THE” WITH ADJECTIVES FOR CERTAIN GROUPS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

201

READ THE FORUM AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

202

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE STATEMENTS IN THE ORDER
THAT THEY ARE DESCRIBED
A teacher from an urban multicultural school is
talking about research into stereotypes that she
carried out with her students.

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Using adjectives as nouns

Countries and nationalities

Generalizing politely

203

Old and new situations
New situations may seem unusual, but over time they
become familiar. You can use phrases that contain
“be used to” and “get used to” to talk about this.

New language “Be used to” and “get used to”
Vocabulary Moving and living abroad
New skill Talking about old and new situations

KEY LANGUAGE “BE USED TO” AND “GET USED TO”
To “get used to (doing)
something” means
that you adapt to
new or different
circumstances so that
they become familiar.

To “be used to (doing)
something” means
that you have done it
long enough that it is
normal and familiar.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “BE USED TO” AND “GET USED TO”

TIP

Do not confuse these
phrases with “used to”
(without “be” or “get”), which
is used when talking about
a regular past action.

204

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

205

REVIEW “USED TO”
You can use “used to” (without “be” or “get”)
with an infinitive to talk about past habits. You
can also use it to talk about fixed states in the
past, but only in an undetermined timeframe.

FILL IN THE GAPS WITH THE CORRECT
FORMS OF THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

Refers to a past habit.

Refers to a past state.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

206

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO,
SPEAKING OUT LOUD

International news journalist
Julie Holmes was asked to describe
her greatest culture shocks.

CHECKLIST
“Be used to” and “get used to”

Moving and living abroad

Talking about old and new situations

207

Articles
Articles are some of the shortest and most common
words in the English language. There are several rules
stating which article, if any, should be used.

New language Articles
Vocabulary Commonly misspelled words
New skill Saying words with silent letters

KEY LANGUAGE THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
Use the definite article
“the” when the person or
thing you are referring to
is easily identifiable.

It is clear from the context that
this means the tour guide.

This includes situations
where a person or thing has
already been mentioned.

The bus trip has already
been mentioned.

Use the definite article
before superlatives.
The definite article is used before
superlatives such as “most famous.”

The definite article is also
used with unique objects.

The Trevi Fountain
is a unique object.
“Pope” is a title.

It is also used for people
with unique titles.

KEY LANGUAGE THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE
Use the indefinite articles
“a” and “an” when the exact
person or thing you are
referring to is unknown.

Also use the indefinite article
to talk about an entire class
of people or things generally.

208

The vacation is a new thing that
is being introduced.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS
IN EACH SENTENCE

KEY LANGUAGE THE ZERO ARTICLE
You do not need an article
with uncountable and plural
nouns when you want to
talk generally rather than
specifically. This is also
called the zero article.

“Sand” is an uncountable noun.

The number of sights is indefinite.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

209

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE CORRECT ARTICLES, LEAVING
A GAP FOR ZERO ARTICLE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Three people are talking about the geography
of countries that they know well.

210

READ THE CLUES AND WRITE THE ANSWERS IN THE
CORRECT PLACES ON THE GRID

PRONUNCIATION
SILENT LETTERS

TIP

The answers are all
words that are
commonly misspelled
in English.

MARK THE SILENT LETTERS AND SAY
THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD

Some words contain letters that are
written, but not spoken (also called
silent letters). The letters b, k, t, and h
can all be silent in some words.

CHECKLIST
Articles

Commonly misspelled words

Saying words with silent letters

211

Abstract ideas
Most abstract nouns are uncountable. Some, however,
can be either countable or uncountable, and the two
forms often mean slightly different things.

New language Concrete and abstract nouns
Vocabulary Education systems
New skill Talking about abstract ideas

KEY LANGUAGE CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT NOUNS
Abstract nouns refer to ideas, events, concepts, feelings, and
qualities that do not have a physical existence. Concrete nouns,
however, are things that you can experience through your senses.

“Books” is a countable,
concrete noun.

“Knowledge” is an
uncountable, abstract noun.

FURTHER EXAMPLES CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT NOUNS

CONCRETE NOUNS

ABSTRACT NOUNS

WRITE THE NOUNS FROM THE PANEL IN THE CORRECT GROUPS
CONCRETE NOUNS

212

ABSTRACT NOUNS

KEY LANGUAGE COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE ABSTRACT NOUNS
Some abstract nouns have both countable and uncountable forms.
The forms have a slight difference in meaning, with the countable
form being specific and the uncountable form being more general.
COUNTABLE

Each “time” is a
specific occasion.

“Successes” are the
specific achievements.

“Qualities” refers to features
of her character.

These are the particular
abilities learned.

UNCOUNTABLE

“Time” refers to the
concept in general.

“Success” refers to
achievement in general.

“Quality” refers to a
high standard.

“Skill” is the general ability
to do something.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD
IN EACH SENTENCE

213

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE ABSTRACT NOUNS IN THE PANEL

LISTEN TO THE REPORT AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Two people are discussing education
systems in different parts of the world.

214

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

CHECKLIST
Concrete and abstract nouns

Education systems

Talking about abstract ideas

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 52–55
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

USING ADJECTIVES AS NOUNS

“BE USED TO” AND “GET USED TO”

ARTICLES

CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT NOUNS
COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE
ABSTRACT NOUNS

215

Vocabulary
TECHNOLOGY AND THE FUTURE

216

217

Future hopes
To talk about wishes for the future, usually when you
want something to change, you use the past tense
modals “would” and “could.”

New language “Wish” with “would” or “could”
Vocabulary Hopes for the future
New skill Talking about future hopes and wishes

KEY LANGUAGE “WISH” FOR FUTURE HOPES
Use “wish” with “could” to
talk about hopes for
yourself.

Use “wish” with “would”
when someone else is
doing something you
don’t like and you want
them to change.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “WISH” FOR FUTURE HOPES

218

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING “COULD,” “WOULD,” OR “WOULDN’T”

CHECKLIST
“Wish” with “would” or “could”

Hopes for the future

Talking about future hopes and wishes

219

The future continuous
You can use the future continuous with “will” to make
predictions about the future, and also to speculate about
what might be happening at the current moment.

New language The future continuous with “will”
Vocabulary Polite requests
New skill Planning your career

KEY LANGUAGE THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS WITH “WILL”
The future continuous describes an event that will be in progress at a given time in
the future. The event will start before the stated time and may continue after it.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS

FUTURE CONTINUOUS

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS WITH “WILL”

HOW TO FORM THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS WITH “WILL”
SUBJECT

220

“WILL”

“BE”

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

OBJECT

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS
WITH “WILL”

USE THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS WITH “WILL” TO DESCRIBE THE EVENTS
ON THE TIMELINE, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

221

KEY LANGUAGE THE FUTURE
CONTINUOUS WITH “ANYWAY”

KEY LANGUAGE
NEUTRAL QUESTIONS

The future continuous can also be used to talk about
events that are going to happen as a matter of course
or “anyway.”

The future continuous is also used to ask neutral
questions. These are questions asked for information,
not to make a request.
NEUTRAL QUESTION
Future continuous.

REQUEST
Future with “will.”

REWRITE THE QUESTIONS USING THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS WITH “WILL”

222

SAY THE QUESTIONS OUT LOUD, PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE FUTURE
CONTINUOUS WITH “WILL”

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Brian and Jeanette are talking
about their plans after work.

223

KEY LANGUAGE THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TO TALK ABOUT THE PRESENT
You can also use the future continuous to speculate about
something that might be happening at the present moment.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
MARK WHO SAID EACH SENTENCE
Darren and Kate are talking
about why Jonas might not
be at work today.

224

USE THE IMAGES TO SAY
SENTENCES USING THE FUTURE
CONTINUOUS WITH “WILL”

READ THE BLOG POST AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

CHECKLIST
The future continuous with “will”

Polite requests

Planning your career

225

The future perfect
You can use the future perfect to talk about events
that will overlap with, or finish before, another event
in the future.

New language The future perfect
Vocabulary Life plans
New skill Making plans and predictions

KEY LANGUAGE THE FUTURE PERFECT
You can use the future perfect to say that an action
or event will be finished before a certain future time.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE FUTURE PERFECT

HOW TO FORM THE FUTURE PERFECT
SUBJECT

226

“WILL”

“HAVE”

PAST PARTICIPLE

OBJECT

TIME REFERENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE FUTURE PERFECT

USE THE FUTURE PERFECT TO WRITE SENTENCES ABOUT THE EVENTS
ON THE TIMELINE

227

KEY LANGUAGE THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
You can use the future perfect continuous to predict the length of
an activity. This tense looks back from that imagined time in the future.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

HOW TO FORM THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
TIME REFERENCE

228

SUBJECT

“WILL”

“HAVE”

“BEEN”

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

REST OF SENTENCE

READ THE PARAGRAPH AND CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT OPTIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

LISTEN AGAIN AND MARK
THE CORRECT SUMMARY

It’s Jon and Eva’s last day of high school.
They’re talking about their future plans.

CHECKLIST
The future perfect

Life plans

Making plans and predictions

229

The future in the past
There are a number of constructions in English that
you can use to describe thoughts about the future
that someone had at some point in the past.

New language “Would” and “was going to”
Vocabulary Changing plans
New skill Saying what you thought

KEY LANGUAGE THE FUTURE IN THE PAST USING “WOULD”
Where you would use “will” to talk about a future event from
the present, you use “would” to talk about your past view of it.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

230

KEY LANGUAGE THE FUTURE IN THE PAST USING “WAS GOING TO”
Where you would use “going to” to talk about a future event from the
present, you use “was / were going to” to talk about your past view of it.

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

231

KEY LANGUAGE THE FUTURE IN THE PAST USING THE PAST CONTINUOUS
You can also use the past continuous to talk about
an arranged future event from a time in the past.

SAY EACH SENTENCE OUT LOUD IN THE PAST TENSE

232

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND DECIDE WHICH THINGS ACTUALLY HAPPENED

CHECKLIST
“Would” and “was going to”

Changing plans

Saying what you thought

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 57–60
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

“WISH” FOR FUTURE HOPES
THE FUTURE CONTINU