Головна English For Everyone - Level 3 Intermediate - Course Book

English For Everyone - Level 3 Intermediate - Course Book

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File: partly with OCR, Great Britain Edition
Рік:
2016
Видавництво:
DK, Dorling Kindersley
Мова:
english
Сторінки:
288
ISBN 13:
9780241226063
Серії:
English for Everyone
Файл:
PDF, 132,07 MB

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Mr Fernando
This site is help me become a better teacher for my students.
25 May 2021 (02:41) 
Saeed anwar
Very helpful sir. Keep it up
11 September 2021 (04:49) 

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1

Hamlet (Coleção Shakespeare em Quadrinhos )

年:
2013
语言:
portuguese
文件:
PDF, 15.60 MB
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Author
Gill Johnson is an experienced English-language teacher, author,
teacher-trainer, and conference speaker. She currently runs a large
modern languages department at an international school in
Sussex, UK, and spends her holidays training teachers worldwide.

Course consultant
Tim Bowen has taught English and trained teachers in more than 30
countries worldwide. He is the co-author of works on pronunciation
teaching and language-teaching methodology, and author of
numerous books for English-language teachers. He is currently a
freelance materials writer, editor, and translator. He is a member
of the Chartered Institute of Linguists.

Language consultant
Professor Susan Barduhn is an experienced English-language
teacher, teacher trainer, and author, who has contributed to
numerous publications. In addition to directing English-language
courses in at least four different continents, she has been President
of the International Association of Teachers of English as
a Foreign Language, and an adviser to the British Council
and the US State Department. She is currently a Professor
at the School for International Training in Vermont, USA.

ENGLISH
FO R E V E RYO N E
COURSE BOOK
LEVEL
INTERMEDIATE

Contents
Editors Hayley Maher, Laura Sandford
Art Editors Rachel Aloof, Dominic Clifford
Senior Art Editor Sharon Spencer
Editorial Assistants Jessica Cawthra, Sarah Edwards
Illustrators Edwood Burn, Denise Joos, Michael Parkin,
Jemma Westing
Audio Producer Liz Hammond
Managing Editor Daniel Mills
Managing Art Editor Anna Hall
Project Manager Christine Stroyan
Jacket Designer Natalie Godwin
Jacket Editor Claire Gell
Jacket Design Development Manager
Sophia MTT
Producer, Pre-Production Luca Frassinetti
Producer Mary Slater
Publisher Andrew Macintyre
Art Director Karen Self
Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf
DK India
Jacket Designer Surabhi Wadhwa
Managing Jackets Editor Saloni Singh
Senior DTP Designer Harish Aggarwal
First published in Great Britain in 2016 by
Dorling Kindersley Limited
80 Strand, London, WC2R 0; RL
Copyright © 2016 Dorling Kindersley Limited
A Penguin Random House Company
10 8 6 4 2 1 3 5 7 9
001–284202–Jun/2016
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or
introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or
by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,
or otherwise), without the prior written
permission of the copyright owner.
A CIP catalogue record for this book
is available from the British Library.
ISBN: 978-0-2412-2606-3
Printed and bound in China
All images © Dorling Kindersley Limited
For further information see: www.dkimages.com

A WORLD OF IDEAS:
SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW
www.dk.com

How the course works
Making conversation

8
12

New language Question tags
Vocabulary Introductions and greetings
New skill Making conversation

Vocabulary Countries

16

Where things are

18

New language Prepositions of place
Vocabulary Countries and nationalities
New skill Talking about where things are

Numbers and statistics

22

New language Numbers in spoken English
Vocabulary Sports events
New skill Using numbers in conversation

Times and dates

24

New language Precise times
Vocabulary Dates in US and UK English
New skill Talking about times and dates

Contact details

26

New language Letters and numbers
Vocabulary Contact details
New skill Exchanging personal information

Talking about jobs

30

New language “Job” and “work”
Vocabulary Jobs and professions
New skill Talking about your career

Routine and free time

34

New language Adverbs of frequency
Vocabulary Leisure activities
New skill Talking about routines

Everyday activities

38

New language Phrasal verbs
Vocabulary Work and leisure
New skill Talking about everyday activities

Vocabulary Body and appearance

42

Describing people

44

Vocabulary Clothes and accessories

Places I have been

46

Things I have done

48

New language Modifying adverbs
Vocabulary Adventure sports
New skill Talking about your achievements

Vocabulary Rooms and furniture

52

Daily routines

54

New language Present perfect continuous
Vocabulary Home improvements
New skill Talking about activities in the past

What I’m wearing
New language The present continuous
Vocabulary Clothes and fashion
New skill Describing clothes

Activities in progress

My talents and skills

New language Collocations
Vocabulary Routines and chores
New skill Talking about your day

Separable phrasal verbs

58

62

Likes and dislikes

66

Vocabulary Family and growing up

70

Early years

72

New language “Did” for emphasis
Vocabulary Baby equipment and parenting
New skill Describing your childhood

Vocabulary Education

76

Changing meaning

78

New language Prefixes and suffixes
Vocabulary Studying
New skill Changing the meaning of words

Vocabulary Transportation and travel

80

94

98

102

New language Negative prefixes
Vocabulary Urban problems
New skill Talking about everyday problems

General and specific things

New language Adjectives with “-ing” and “-ed”
Vocabulary Feelings and emotions
New skill Talking about likes and dislikes

90

New language Forms of the present perfect
Vocabulary State and action verbs
New skill Talking about results of activities

Everyday problems

New language Modifiers
Vocabulary Geographical terms
New skill Describing and comparing places

86

New language Present perfect continuous questions
Vocabulary Hobbies and interests
New skill Asking about past events

Activities and their results

New language Separable phrasal verbs
Vocabulary Around town
New skill Describing a town in detail

Comparing places

82

New language Present perfect tense
Vocabulary Travel experiences
New skill Talking about the recent past

New language Adjective order
Vocabulary Adjectives for describing people
New skill Describing people in detail

106

New language Definite and zero articles
Vocabulary Possessions
New skill Talking about the things you own

Vocabulary Food and drink

110

Myself, yourself

112

New language Reflexive pronouns
Vocabulary Measurements and flavors
New skill Talking about food and recipes

What things are for

116

New language Gerunds and infinitives
Vocabulary Household gadgets
New skill Talking about why you use things

Vocabulary Sports

120

Opinions and plans

122

New language Simple verb patterns
Vocabulary Sports and leisure
New skill Talking about opinions and plans

Future arrangements

Asking for agreement

126

New language Present continuous for plans
Vocabulary Collocations with “take”
New skill Talking about future arrangements

Vocabulary Science and tools

160

Things that are always true

162

130

New language Zero conditional
Vocabulary Scientific facts
New skill Talking about general truths

Vocabulary Weather and climate

134

New language Present simple passive
Vocabulary Science experiments
New skill Describing a process

Predictions and promises

136

Planning the future
New language “Going to”
Vocabulary Healthy living
New skill Talking about plans to keep fit

Describing a process

New language Future tense with “will”
Vocabulary Weather
New skill Making predictions and promises

Possibility

Obligations

140

144

More phrasal verbs

Planning activities

146

148

New language Second conditional
Vocabulary Collocations with “make” and “do”
New skill Talking about future dreams

Unlikely situations

152

New language “Can,” “could,” and “may”
Vocabulary Good manners
New skill Asking for permission

New language Three-word phrasal verbs
Vocabulary Personal relationships
New skill Understanding informal English

Solving problems

New language Subordinate time clauses
Vocabulary Building works
New skill Describing sequences of events

New language “Might” and “could”
Vocabulary Health and sickness
New skill Talking about possibility

Polite requests

170

174

New language First conditional with imperative
Vocabulary Health and wellbeing
New skill Giving advice and instructions

New language “Must” and “have to”
Vocabulary Health and sickness
New skill Expressing obligation

Making deductions

Things that might happen

166

New language First conditional
Vocabulary Tools and making things
New skill Giving advice and instructions

New language “Might” to show possibility
Vocabulary Weather and landscape
New skill Discussing possibilities

Vocabulary Sickness and health

156

New language Question tags
Vocabulary Travel and leisure plans
New skill Checking information

178

182

Vocabulary Emotions

186

Giving advice

188

New language “If I were you”
Vocabulary Phrases for giving advice
New skill Making suggestions
154

Real and unreal situations
New language First and second conditional
Vocabulary Collocations for business meetings
New skill Talking about possibilities

192

Being specific

Adding information

What other people said

200

Telling things to people

204

Suggestions and explanations

208
210

212

New language Verbs with object and infinitive
Vocabulary Reporting verbs
New skill Reporting advice and instructions

216

New language Reported questions
Vocabulary Collocations with “raise”
New skill Reporting direct questions

220

New language “If” and “whether”
Vocabulary Verb / preposition collocations
New skill Reporting simple questions

224

New language Indirect questions
Vocabulary Practical issues
New skill Asking polite questions

Vocabulary Common English idioms

228

Telling a story

230

New language “Wish” with past tenses
Vocabulary Life events
New skill Talking about regrets

New language Past continuous
Vocabulary Adjectives to describe places
New skill Setting the scene for a story

Interrupted actions

Telling people what to do

New language Past continuous and past simple
Vocabulary Travel and leisure
New skill Describing interrupted actions

Events in the past

What other people asked

New language Past simple passive
Vocabulary Environmental disasters
New skill Talking about important events

Before and after

Reporting simple questions

New language Past perfect and past simple
Vocabulary Visual arts
New skill Describing sequences of past events

First times

Polite questions

New language “Never” / “ever” with past tenses
Vocabulary Travel adjectives
New skill Describing new experiences

New language Narrative tenses
Vocabulary Idioms for storytelling
New skill Using different past tenses

240

New language Reported speech with “tell”
Vocabulary Collocations with “say” and “tell”
New skill Talking about truth and lies

New language Reporting verbs with “that”
Vocabulary More reporting verbs
New skill Reporting explanations

Setting the scene

236

New language Reported speech
Vocabulary Work and education
New skill Talking about people’s lives

New language Past continuous
Vocabulary Verb / noun collocations
New skill Talking about events at given times

Vocabulary The natural world

232

New language Time adverbs and phrases
Vocabulary Storytelling devices
New skill Putting events in order

New language Non-defining relative clauses
Vocabulary Personal characteristics
New skill Describing people, places, and things

What was happening when?

What happened when?

196

New language Defining relative clauses
Vocabulary Personal characteristics
New skill Describing people and jobs

Wishes and regrets

244

248

252

256

260

264

Answers

268

Index

285

How the course works
English for Everyone is designed for people who want to teach
themselves the English language. Like all language courses, it
covers the core skills: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation,
listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Unlike in other courses,
the skills are taught and practiced as
Making conversation
visually as possible, using images and
graphics to help you understand and
remember. The best way to learn is to
work through the book in order, making
full use of the audio available on the
website and app. Turn to the practice
book at the end of each unit to reinforce
your learning with additional exercises.
In spoken English, you might hear small questions added
to the ends of sentences. These are called question tags,
and they are used to invite someone to agree with you.

Making conversation
In spoken English, you might hear small questions added
to the ends of sentences. These are called question tags,
and they are used to invite someone to agree with you.

say the sentences out loud, adding question tags

New language Question tags
Vocabulary Introductions and greetings
New skill Making conversation

MaTch ThE bEgInnIngs of ThE sEnTEncEs To ThE corrEcT EndIngs

Mark ThE sEnTEncEs ThaT arE corrEcT
ADD QUESTION TAGS
SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD,
TO THE SENTENCES
ADDING QUESTION TAGS

New language Question tags
Vocabulary Introductions and greetings
New skill Making conversation

KEY LANGUAGE QUESTION TAGS

STATEMENT

The simplest question
tags use the verb “to
be” with a pronoun
matching the subject
of the sentence.

QUESTION TAG

FURTHER EXAMPLES QUESTION TAGS

For statements with “I” use
“aren’t I?” not “amn’t I?” in
the negative question tag.

HOW TO FORM QUESTION TAGS

TIP

A positive statement is followed by a negative
question tag, and a negative statement is followed
by a positive question tag.
STATEMENT

Verb is positive.

Question tags
are mostly used
in informal
situations.

13

26/01/16 12:02 am 012-015_Unit1_Int_Making_conversation.indd 13

Five people are attending
a birthday party.

QUESTION TAG

Question tag uses positive form of verb.

012-015_Unit_1_Making_conversation.indd 12

22/01/2016 11:31

Modules Each unit is broken down
into modules, which should be done
in order. You can take a break from
learning after completing any module.

Everyday activities

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS
New language Phrasal verbs
Vocabulary Work and leisure
New skill Talking about everyday activities

KEY LANGUAGE PHRASAL VERBS

TIP

Phrasal verbs consist of a verb followed by a particle.
The particle often changes the usual meaning of the verb.

Most, but not all,
particles in
phrasal verbs are
also prepositions.

PHRASAL VERB

Language learning
Modules with colored
backgrounds teach new
vocabulary and grammar.
Study these carefully
before moving on to
the exercises.

verb

COURSE BOOK

13

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Learning points Every unit
begins with a summary of
the key learning points.

English often uses phrasal verbs to talk about routine
activities. Phrasal verbs are two-part verbs that are
mostly used in informal, conversational English.

26/01/16 12:02 am

Question tag uses negative form of verb.

12

Unit number The book is divided
into units. The unit number helps
you keep track of your progress.

PRACTICE BOOK

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

QUESTION TAG

STATEMENT

Verb is negative.

12

012-015_Unit1_Int_Making_conversation.indd 12

READ THE ARTICLE AND MATCH THE PHRASAL VERBS
TO THEIR DEFINITIONS

particle

HOW TO FORM PHRASAL VERBS
The particle always comes after the verb. The particle
never changes, even if the verb changes.

This is wrong. The particle
should never change.

The “he” form of the verb has an “s.”

This is wrong. The particle
should come after the verb.

FURTHER EXAMPLES PHRASAL VERBS

38

39

038-041_Unit_9_Everyday.indd 38

FREE AUDIO
website and app
www.dkefe.com
8

22/01/2016 18:46 038-041_Unit_9_Everyday.indd 39

Audio support Most modules
have supporting audio
recordings of native English
speakers to help you improve
your speaking and listening skills.

22/01/2016 18:46

Exercises Modules with
white backgrounds
contain exercises that help
you practice your new
skills to reinforce learning.

Language modules
New language points are taught in carefully graded stages, starting with a simple
explanation of when they are used, then offering further examples of common
usage, and a detailed breakdown of how key constructions are formed.

Activities in progress

Module number Every module
is identified with a unique number,
Use the present perfect continuous to talk about
so you can track your progress and
ongoing activities in the past. Use “for” and “since” to
easily locate any related audio.
talk about the length or starting point of an activity.

Module heading The teaching
with

New language Present perfect continuous
topic appears here, along
Vocabulary Home improvements
a brief introduction.
New skill Talking about activities in the past

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
The present perfect continuous describes an activity that took place over a period
of time in the recent past. The activity might just have stopped or might still be happening.

Sample language New language points
are introduced in context. Colored
highlights make new constructions easy
to spot, and annotations explain them.

The past activity
often affects the
present moment.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Graphic guide Clear, simple visuals help
to explain the meaning of new language
forms and when to use them, and also
act as an aid to learning and recall.
FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
“I have” can be shortened to “I’ve.”

“He has” can be shortened to “He’s.”

Supporting audio This symbol
indicates that the model sentences
featured in the module are available
as audio recordings.
HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
SUBJECT

“HAS/HAVE”

“BEEN”

Use “have” or “has,”
depending on the subject.

VERB + “-ING”

“Been” stays the
same for all subjects.

OBJECT

Formation guide Visual guides
break down English grammar into its
simplest parts, showing you how to
recreate even complex formations.

Add “ing” to
the main verb.

90

Vocabulary
FOOD AND DRINK

090-093_Unit_26_Activities.indd 90

22/01/2016 11:32

Vocabulary Throughout the book,
vocabulary modules list the most
common and useful English words
and phrases, with visual cues to
help you remember them.

Write-on lines You are
encouraged to write your own
translations of English words to
create your own reference pages.
110

110_111_284202_EFE_Unit_31_FOOD_INT.indd 110

22/01/2016 11:33

9

Practice modules
Each exercise is carefully graded to drill
and test the language taught in the
corresponding course book units.
Working through the exercises alongside
the course book will help you remember
what you have learned and become
more fluent. Every exercise is introduced
with a symbol to indicate which skill is
being practiced.

Module number Every module
is identified with a unique
number, so you can easily locate
answers and related audio.

GRAMMAR
Apply new language rules
in different contexts.

VOCABULARY
Cement your understanding
of key vocabulary.

READING
Examine target language
in real-life English contexts.

SPEAKING
Compare your spoken English
to model audio recordings.

LISTENING
Test your understanding
of spoken English.

ADD QUESTION TAGS
TO THE SENTENCES

Sample answer The first
question of each exercise is
answered for you, to help make
the task easy to understand.

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD,
Exercise
instruction
Every
ADDING
QUESTION
TAGSexercise
is introduced with a brief instruction,
telling you what you need to do.

Space for writing You are
encouraged to write your answers
in the book for future reference.
Supporting graphics Visual
cues are given to help you
understand the exercises.

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, USING THE GIVEN PHRASAL VERBS

FILL IN THE GAPS WITH “FOR” OR “SINCE”

Listening exercise
This symbol indicates
that you should listen to
an audio track in order
to answer the questions
in the exercise.

TO THE
AUDIO
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Supporting LISTEN
audio This
symbol
shows
that the answers to the exercise are
Fivetracks.
people are
attending
available as audio
Listen
to
LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND USE PHRASAL VERBS
a birthday party.
TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES
them after completing the exercise.
Speaking exercise This
symbol indicates that you
should say your answers
LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND WRITE HOW LONG THE ACTIVITY IN EACH
out loud, then compare
PICTURE HAS BEEN GOING ON FOR
them to model recordings
included in your audio files.

13

012-015_Unit_1_Making_conversation.indd 13

22/01/2016 11:31

CHECKLIST
Phrasal verbs

Work and leisure

Talking about everyday activities

41

CHECKLIST

10

Present perfect continuous

038-041_Unit_9_Everyday.indd 41

Home improvements

22/01/2016 18:46

Talking about activities in the past

93

Audio
English for Everyone features extensive supporting audio materials.
You are encouraged to use them as much as you can, to improve
your understanding of spoken English, and to make your own
accent and pronunciation more natural. Each file can be played,
paused, and repeated as often as you like, until you are confident
you understand what has been said.
LISTENING EXERCISES
This symbol indicates that you should
listen to an audio track in order to
answer the questions in the exercise.

FREE AUDIO
website and app
www.dkefe.com

SUPPORTING AUDIO
This symbol indicates that extra audio
material is available for you to listen
to after completing the module.

Track your progress

LOOK AT THE LUGGAGE TAG, THEN RESPOND TO THE AUDIO,
SPEAKING OUT LOUD

The course is designed to make it easy to monitor your progress,
with regular summary and review modules. Answers are provided
for every exercise, so you can see how well you have understood
each teaching point.

Answers Find the
answers to every
exercise printed at
the back of the book.

LOOK AT THE LUGGAGE TAG, THEN RESPOND TO THE AUDIO,
SPEAKING OUT LOUD

Checklists Every unit ends with a
checklist, where you can check off
the new skills you have learned.
Exercise numbers
Match these numbers
to the unique identifier
at the top-left corner
of each exercise.

CHECKLIST
Letters and numbers

Contact details

Exchanging personal information

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 1–6
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

Review modules At the end of a
group of units, you will find a more
PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE
CHECKLISTreview module, summarizing
detailed
Letters
numbers
the and
language
you Contact
havedetails
learned. Exchanging personal information
FRACTIONS
QUESTION TAGS

CheckUNITboxes Use these boxes
to mark the skills you feel
comfortable with. Go back and
review anything you feel you
need to practice further.
Audio This symbol
indicates that the
answers can also be
listened to.

DECIMALS AND PERCENTAGES

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 1–6

NEW LANGUAGE
TIMES AND DATES

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

QUESTION TAGS
CONTACT DETAILS
PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

29
FRACTIONS

DECIMALS AND PERCENTAGES
026-029_Unit_6_Contact_details.indd
29

26/01/2016 10:57

TIMES AND DATES

CONTACT DETAILS

29

026-029_Unit_6_Contact_details.indd 29

26/01/2016 10:57

11

Making conversation
In spoken English, you might hear small questions added
to the ends of sentences. These are called question tags,
and they are used to invite someone to agree with you.

New language Question tags
Vocabulary Introductions and greetings
New skill Making conversation

KEY LANGUAGE QUESTION TAGS
STATEMENT

The simplest question
tags use the verb “to
be” with a pronoun
matching the subject
of the sentence.

QUESTION TAG

FURTHER EXAMPLES QUESTION TAGS

For statements with “I” use
“aren’t I?” not “amn’t I?” in
the negative question tag.

HOW TO FORM QUESTION TAGS

TIP

A positive statement is followed by a negative
question tag, and a negative statement is followed
by a positive question tag.
STATEMENT

Verb is positive.

Question tags
are mostly used
in informal
situations.
QUESTION TAG

Question tag uses negative form of verb.

STATEMENT

Verb is negative.

12

QUESTION TAG

Question tag uses positive form of verb.

ADD QUESTION TAGS
TO THE SENTENCES

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD,
ADDING QUESTION TAGS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Five people are attending
a birthday party.

13

KEY LANGUAGE FORMAL AND INFORMAL CONVERSATIONS
Chatting to friends uses informal language, while
greeting people at work may use formal language.
FORMAL

INFORMAL

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

14

MARK THE BEST REPLY
TO EACH GREETING

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO,
SPEAKING OUT LOUD

All of these replies are correct, but some are more
appropriate for formal or informal situations.

CHECKLIST
Question tags

Introductions and greetings

Making conversation

15

Vocabulary
COUNTRIES

16

17

Where things are
English uses prepositions to talk about where things are.
It is important to learn the correct prepositions for
different phrases describing locations and directions.

New language Prepositions of place
Vocabulary Countries and nationalities
New skill Talking about where things are

KEY LANGUAGE PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE
Many locations must have a particular preposition before them.
Using the wrong preposition can change the meaning
of a sentence about where things are.

VOCABULARY COMPASS POINTS AND USEFUL PHRASES

18

READ THE POSTCARD AND FILL IN THE GAPS WITH
THE CORRECT PREPOSITION OF PLACE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Joe and Patsy are on a trip around the world.
They introduce themselves to some other travelers.

19

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

KEY LANGUAGE PRECISE
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

20

MATCH THE PICTURES
TO THE CORRECT SENTENCES

READ THE ARTICLE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES, USING PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

CHECKLIST
Prepositions of place

Countries and nationalities

Talking about where things are

21

Numbers and statistics
Fractions, decimals, and percentages are all
pronounced differently in spoken English,
following a few simple rules.

New language Numbers in spoken English
Vocabulary Sports events
New skill Using numbers in conversation

KEY LANGUAGE FRACTIONS
You might see fractions written out as words. Aside from “half ” and “quarter,”
the bottom number of a fraction is written or spoken as an ordinal number.

Use ordinal numbers for
the bottom of a fraction.

Use cardinal numbers for
the top of a fraction.

Use “and” to link a whole
number and a fraction.

KEY LANGUAGE DECIMALS
Decimals are always written as numbers, not words. The decimal point is pronounced
“point,” and all numbers after the decimal point are spoken separately.

There are three ways of saying
decimals that begin with 0.

Decimal points are written
in English using a period,
or full stop.

You don’t say “three
point ninety-seven.”

KEY LANGUAGE PERCENTAGES
The % symbol is written and spoken as “percent.” You might also see “per cent”
written in UK English. Percentages are normally written as numbers, not words.

22

The % symbol is
pronounced “percent.”

SAY THE
NUMBERS OUT LOUD

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND COMPLETE
THE SENTENCES WITH NUMBERS
You will hear a sports report from
the Athletics Championship.

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, SAYING THE NUMBERS CORRECTLY

CHECKLIST
Numbers in spoken English

Sports events

Using numbers in conversation

23

Times and dates
There are many ways of saying the time and the date
in English. American and British English speakers
often use different forms.

New language Precise times
Vocabulary Dates in US and UK English
New skill Talking about times and dates

KEY LANGUAGE SAYING WHAT THE TIME IS
US English and informal spoken UK English use the 12-hour clock.

Saying “minutes” shows you
are being precise about the time.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND FILL IN THE GAPS USING
THE TIMES IN THE PANEL
Sofia and Dylan are going to see a play. Dylan calls Sofia to say he will be late.

24

You might hear the 24-hour
clock in public transport
announcements.

KEY LANGUAGE DATES

MATCH THE US DATES WITH
THE UK DATES

Dates in American English are usually
written with the month first. Dates in
British English are usually written with
the day first.
US

US

UK

UK

LOOK AT THE POSTER, THEN RESPOND TO THE AUDIO,
SPEAKING OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Precise times

Dates in US and UK English

Talking about times and dates

25

Contact details
Telephone numbers, street addresses, email addresses,
and web addresses are expressed in slightly different
ways in US and UK English.

VOCABULARY CONTACT DETAILS

PRONUNCIATION WEBSITES AND EMAILS
In spoken English, “.com,“ “@,” and “.co.uk” are pronounced as follows:

26

New language Letters and numbers
Vocabulary Contact details
New skill Exchanging personal information

READ THE BUSINESS CARD AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
WRITE THE PLACE NAMES THAT
ARE SPELLED OUT

ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
BY SPELLING THE PLACE NAMES
OUT LOUD

27

PRONUNCIATION NUMBERS
In American English, the number “0” is pronounced “zero,” and repeated numbers are said individually.
In British English, many different pronunciations are possible for 0 and rows of repeated numbers.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Joe is swapping contact details with the new
friends he met on his trip around the world.

PRONUNCIATION VOWEL SOUNDS
The names that you heard in the dialogue include
different vowel sounds. Practice saying the
names below, then listen and repeat.

28

LOOK AT THE LUGGAGE TAG, THEN RESPOND TO THE AUDIO,
SPEAKING OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Letters and numbers

Contact details

Exchanging personal information

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 1–6
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

QUESTION TAGS

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

FRACTIONS

DECIMALS AND PERCENTAGES

TIMES AND DATES

CONTACT DETAILS

29

Talking about jobs
English uses the words “job” and “work” in a variety of
contexts to talk about different professions, working
conditions, and career paths.

VOCABULARY JOBS

30

New language “Job” and “work”
Vocabulary Jobs and professions
New skill Talking about your career

READ THE JOB ADVERTISEMENTS AND WRITE THE HIGHLIGHTED WORDS
NEXT TO THEIR DEFINITIONS

REWRITE THE HIGHLIGHTED WORDS, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

31

KEY LANGUAGE “JOB” OR “WORK”
The words “job” and “work” are
commonly confused in English.

“Job” can only be a noun.
It cannot be a verb.

“Job” is used for a specific role.
It is a countable noun.

“Work” can be a noun.

It can also
be a verb.

“Work” is uncountable,
and used for general activities.

English uses “work” to talk about working hours and travel.

FILL IN THE GAPS WITH
“JOB” OR “WORK”

32

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN
NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE
ORDER THEY ARE DESCRIBED

READ THE ARTICLE AND MATCH THE HIGHLIGHTED WORDS
TO THEIR DEFINITIONS

CHECKLIST
“Job” and “work”

Jobs and professions

Talking about your career

33

Routine and free time
You can use adverbs of frequency to talk accurately
about your daily routine and how often you do work
and leisure activities.

New language Adverbs of frequency
Vocabulary Leisure activities
New skill Talking about routines

KEY LANGUAGE ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY
Adverbs of frequency
sit between the
subject of the
sentence and the
main verb.

100%

Use these for things
that happen all or a
lot of the time.

Use these for things
that happen some
of the time.

0%

Use these for things
that happen very few
times, or not at all.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS TO MAKE PAIRS OF
SENTENCES WITH SIMILAR MEANINGS

34

KEY LANGUAGE WORD ORDER
You can also describe frequency with more precise expressions.
Unlike adverbs of frequency, these must sit at the end of a phrase.
The verb usually goes after
the adverb of frequency.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE
CORRECT ORDER

Precise expressions usually
go at the end of a phrase.

REWRITE THE NOTE,
CORRECTING THE ERRORS

35

KEY LANGUAGE WORD ORDER WITH “BE”
If the main verb in a
sentence is “be,” adverbs
of frequency go after
the verb, not before it.

Adverbs of frequency go before most verbs.

Adverbs of frequency go after the verb “be.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES WORD ORDER WITH “BE”

MARK THE SENTENCES
THAT ARE CORRECT

36

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD,
PUTTING THE ADVERB OF
FREQUENCY IN THE CORRECT PLACE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO
AND WRITE HOW OFTEN
EACH ACTIVITY IS DONE

READ THE ARTICLE AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Lucy is an artist who has recently retired and
moved to a small town. Her friend Michael is
asking her about her new life.

CHECKLIST
Adverbs of frequency

Leisure activities

Talking about routines

37

Everyday activities
English often uses phrasal verbs to talk about routine
activities. Phrasal verbs are two-part verbs that are
mostly used in informal, conversational English.

New language Phrasal verbs
Vocabulary Work and leisure
New skill Talking about everyday activities

KEY LANGUAGE PHRASAL VERBS

TIP

Phrasal verbs consist of a verb followed by a particle.
The particle often changes the usual meaning of the verb.

Most, but not all,
particles in
phrasal verbs are
also prepositions.

PHRASAL VERB

verb

particle

HOW TO FORM PHRASAL VERBS
The particle always comes after the verb. The particle
never changes, even if the verb changes.

This is wrong. The particle
should never change.

FURTHER EXAMPLES PHRASAL VERBS

38

The “he” form of the verb has an “s.”

This is wrong. The particle
should come after the verb.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

READ THE ARTICLE AND MATCH THE PHRASAL VERBS
TO THEIR DEFINITIONS

39

KEY LANGUAGE PHRASAL VERBS IN DIFFERENT TENSES
When phrasal verbs are used in different tenses,
the verb changes but the particle remains the same.

The particle
never changes.

PRESENT SIMPLE

PAST SIMPLE

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

FUTURE WITH “WILL”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Teresa meets her friend Paul for
coffee, and they talk about what
they’ve been doing.

40

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, USING THE GIVEN PHRASAL VERBS

LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND USE PHRASAL VERBS
TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES

CHECKLIST
Phrasal verbs

Work and leisure

Talking about everyday activities

41

Vocabulary
THE BODY

42

HAIR

APPEARANCE

43

Describing people
You often use more than one adjective in a row, for example
when describing people. In English, adjectives must be
written in a particular order, according to their meaning.

New language Adjective order
Vocabulary Adjectives for describing people
New skill Describing people in detail

KEY LANGUAGE ADJECTIVE ORDER
The meaning of an adjective decides its
order in a sentence. Opinions come first,
followed by different types of facts.

TIP

Don’t use more
than two or three
adjectives in
a sentence.

Fact adjectives also have their own
order, depending on their meaning.

OPINION ADJECTIVE

FACT ADJECTIVES

SHAPE

NOUN

COLOR

KEY LANGUAGE ADJECTIVE ORDER IN DETAIL
OPINION

SIZE

SHAPE

AGE

COLOR

NOUN

WRITE THE WORDS FROM THE PANEL IN THE CORRECT GROUPS
OPINION

44

SIZE

SHAPE

AGE

COLOR

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MATCH THE NAMES TO THE PORTRAITS

CHECKLIST
Adjective order

Adjectives for describing people

Describing people in detail

45

Vocabulary
CLOTHES

46

ACCESSORIES AND STYLES

CLOTHING MATERIALS

CLOTHING SIZES

47

What I’m wearing
The present continuous is used to talk about ongoing
actions that are happening now. It also describes the
current state of things, such as what a person is wearing.

New language Present continuous
Vocabulary Clothes and fashion
New skill Describing clothes

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
The present continuous
is formed using the
verb “to be” and the
present participle.
The present continuous

Add “-ing” to the main verb.

uses the verb “be.”

HOW TO FORM PRESENT PARTICIPLES
The present participle is usually formed by adding “-ing” to the
end of the verb. Some participles are formed slightly differently.
Main verb.

Add “-ing” to form
regular present participles.

Last letter
is “e.”

Leave out “e”
and add “-ing.”

Last letters
are “ie.”

Change
“ie” to “y.”

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS
IN THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

48

Letter pattern is
consonant – vowel – consonant.

Double the last letter,
unless it’s “w” or “y.”

READ THE BLOG AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

49

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

DESCRIBE WHAT EACH PERSON IS WEARING USING THE WORDS
IN THE PANEL, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

50

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND DECIDE WHO BOUGHT
EACH ITEM OF CLOTHING

CHECKLIST
Present continuous

Clothes and fashion

Describing clothes

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 07–13
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

“JOB” OR “WORK”

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY
DESCRIPTIONS OF FREQUENCY
WORD ORDER
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY
WORD ORDER WITH “BE”
PHRASAL VERBS

ADJECTIVE ORDER

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

51

Vocabulary
ROOMS AND FURNITURE

52

53

Daily routines
Collocations are groups of words that are often used
together in English. You can use them to make your
spoken English sound more natural.

New language Collocations
Vocabulary Routines and chores
New skill Talking about your day

KEY LANGUAGE COLLOCATIONS
Many household chores
are described using
collocations. Often the
definite article (“the”)
is included.

COLLOCATION

English speakers would usually say “make”
rather than “do” or “tidy” in this sentence.

“The” sounds more natural than “his” in this sentence.

FURTHER EXAMPLES COLLOCATIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DESCRIBED
Tatiana is visiting her friend Laura and they
are talking about household chores.

54

KEY LANGUAGE COLLOCATIONS
IN DIFFERENT TENSES

REWRITE THE NOTE,
CORRECTING THE ERRORS

Collocations can be used in different tenses
by changing the form of the verb.
PAST SIMPLE

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT
LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS

FUTURE WITH “WILL”

55

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS
The present simple describes routine actions. The present
continuous describes actions that are occurring right now.
PRESENT SIMPLE (ROUTINE ACTION)

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (ACTION HAPPENING NOW)

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Maya visits her sister, Gita, to go shopping,
but Gita is busy with chores.

56

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Collocations

Routines and chores

Talking about your day

57

Separable phrasal verbs
All phrasal verbs consist of a verb and a particle. Some must
have the verb and particle together, but with others, the
object can appear in between.

New language Separable phrasal verbs
Vocabulary Around town
New skill Describing a town in detail

KEY LANGUAGE SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS
With separable
phrasal verbs, the
object of the sentence
can go before or after
the particle. The
meaning is the same.

The object can go
after the particle.

The object can also go between
the verb and the particle.

FURTHER EXAMPLES SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES BY CHANGING THE POSITION OF THE PARTICLE

58

READ THE PASSAGE AND WRITE THE HIGHLIGHTED PHRASES
NEXT TO THEIR DEFINITIONS

COMMON MISTAKES SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS WITH PRONOUNS
If the object of a sentence with a separable phrasal verb is
a pronoun, it must go between the verb and the particle.

This is correct. The pronoun must
go between the verb and the particle.

This is wrong. The pronoun
cannot go after the particle.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING THE OBJECT PRONOUN “IT”

59

VOCABULARY AROUND TOWN

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE
ORDER THEY ARE DESCRIBED

READ THE EMAIL AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

60

VOCABULARY POINTS OF INTEREST

MATCH THE WORDS IN BOLD
TO THE ADJECTIVES

WRITE THE WORDS
FROM THE PANEL IN THE
CORRECT GROUPS
POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

CHECKLIST
Separable phrasal verbs

Around town

Describing a town in detail

61

Comparing places
You can use modifiers before comparatives and
superlatives to compare places, such as geographical
features, in more detail.

New language Modifiers
Vocabulary Geographical terms
New skill Describing and comparing places

KEY LANGUAGE COMPARATIVES WITH MODIFIERS
Use modifiers before comparatives to be more
precise about the comparison you are making.
modifier

These modifiers mean there
is a big difference between
the things you are comparing.

comparative

These modifiers mean there is only a small
difference between the things you are comparing.

KEY LANGUAGE LONG COMPARATIVES WITH MODIFIERS

The modifier goes
before “more.”

Form long comparatives by putting
“more” before the adjective.

LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS
IN EACH SENTENCE

62

TIP

You can’t modify
comparatives
with “very.”

KEY LANGUAGE SUPERLATIVES WITH MODIFIERS
You can use “easily” or “by far” to make superlative adjectives stronger,
or “one of ” to show that the superlative belongs to a group of things.

These modifiers make the superlative stronger.
You cannot use them with comparatives.

“One of ” makes the
superlative part of a group.

If you use “one of ” with superlatives,
the noun must be in plural form.

KEY LANGUAGE LONG SUPERLATIVES WITH MODIFIERS

The modifier
goes before “the.”

Form long superlatives by putting
“the most” before the adjective.

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

63

VOCABULARY GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Umar and Sharon are taking
a quiz about places around
the world.

64

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Modifiers

Geographical terms

Describing and comparing places

65

Likes and dislikes
In English, many adjectives are formed by adding “-ing”
or “-ed” to verbs. These adjectives often have different
meanings and can be used to describe likes and dislikes.

New language Adjectives with “-ing” and “-ed”
Vocabulary Feelings and emotions
New skill Talking about likes and dislikes

KEY LANGUAGE ADJECTIVES WITH “-ING” AND “-ED”
Adjectives that end in “-ing” describe the effect something has.
Adjectives ending in “-ed” describe how something is affected.

The spider causes fright.

The man experiences fright.

FURTHER EXAMPLES ADJECTIVES WITH “-ING” AND “-ED”

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

66

READ THE ARTICLE AND MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE
HIGHLIGHTED ADJECTIVES

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
A newspaper reporter talks
to various people about a
local library closing down.

67

KEY LANGUAGE MODIFYING WORDS
“Quite,” “really,” and “absolutely” can be used to modify how much you like
or don’t like something. These modifying words must go before the verb.
In UK English “quite”
doesn’t have as strong
an emphasis as “really.”
In US English the
emphasis is stronger.

You can use “quite” before “enjoy” and “like.”

“Really” is used when
you mean “a lot more.”
You can use “really” before “like,” “love,”
“enjoy,” “don’t like,” and “hate.”

“Absolutely” is used
in extreme forms.
You can use “absolutely” before “love” and “hate.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES MODIFYING WORDS

COMMON MISTAKES
Some combinations of modifying words
and verbs are wrong.

Don’t use “quite” before “love,”
“don’t like,” or “hate.”

Don’t use “absolutely” before
“like,” “enjoy,” or “don’t like.”

68

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MATCH THE IMAGES TO THE PHRASES

CHECKLIST
Adjectives with “-ing” and “-ed”

Feelings and emotions

Talking about likes and dislikes

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 15–18
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

COLLOCATIONS
PRESENT SIMPLE AND
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS

COMPARATIVES WITH MODIFIERS

SUPERLATIVES WITH MODIFIERS
ADJECTIVES WITH “-ING”
AND “-ED”
MODIFYING WORDS

69

Vocabulary
HENRY’S FAMILY

SARAH’S FAMILY

70

MIA’S FAMILY

GROWING UP

TIM’S FAMILY

VIC’S FAMILY

RELATIONSHIPS

71

Early years
In English, the word “did” can be used for emphasis
to assure someone that a past action really happened.
It’s useful for describing past events and memories.

New language “Did” for emphasis
Vocabulary Baby equipment and parenting
New skill Describing your childhood

KEY LANGUAGE PAST SIMPLE WITH EMPHASIS
To emphasize a
verb in the past
simple, replace
it with “did” plus
the base form
of the verb.

Past simple.

The word “did”
gives emphasis.

“Did” is followed
by the base form
of the main verb.

FURTHER EXAMPLES PAST SIMPLE WITH EMPHASIS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING THE PAST SIMPLE WITH EMPHASIS

72

KEY LANGUAGE SPOKEN EMPHASIS
The important words in a sentence may be said more loudly
or in a different pitch to make them more emphatic.

UNDERLINE THE WORD IN EACH SENTENCE THAT SHOULD BE STRESSED,
THEN SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

73

VOCABULARY EARLY YEARS

READ THE EMAIL AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

74

VOCABULARY PAST SIMPLE IRREGULAR VERBS
Most English verbs take “-ed” in the past simple, but
some irregular verbs have very different past forms.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE
PAST SIMPLE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Jo is telling Georgia about
her first day at school.

CHECKLIST
“Did” for emphasis

Baby equipment and parenting

Describing your childhood

75

Vocabulary
EDUCATION

76

77

Changing meaning
Prefixes are small groups of letters that can be added to the
beginnings of words to change their meaning. Suffixes are
similar, but are added to the ends of words.

KEY LANGUAGE PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES
Each prefix or suffix has its own meaning, which modifies
whatever word it is added to.

FURTHER EXAMPLES PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES

78

New language Prefixes and suffixes
Vocabulary Studying
New skill Changing the meaning of words

FILL IN THE GAPS BY ADDING PREFIXES
OR SUFFIXES TO THE HIGHLIGHTED WORDS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Wei Pan talks about her
experience teaching students
from two different schools.

CHECKLIST
Prefixes and suffixes

Studying

Changing the meaning of words

79

Vocabulary
TRANSPORTATION

TRAVEL

80

81

Places I have been
In English, the present perfect tense is used to talk
about recent or repeated past events. The past simple
is used to say exactly when those events happened.

New language Present perfect tense
Vocabulary Travel experiences
New skill Talking about the recent past

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT PERFECT
The present perfect
can be used to talk
about the past in three
different ways.

SUBJECT + “HAVE / HAS” + PAST PARTICIPLE

To give new information
or “news.”
To talk about a
repeated action that
continues to happen.
To talk about an event that
started in the past and is
still happening now.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT PERFECT

82

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
The present perfect
is used for talking
about a recent event
or ongoing action.

The past simple gives
specific details about
when a completed
event happened.

SUBJECT + “HAVE / HAS” + PAST PARTICIPLE

SUBJECT + PAST SIMPLE

MARK THE SENTENCES
THAT ARE CORRECT

TIME MARKER

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Jodie and Trina are talking about
Trina’s travel adventures and what
she has learned along the way.

83

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
IN FULL SENTENCES

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE
VERBS IN BRACKETS IN THE PRESENT PERFECT

84

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE IN US ENGLISH
US English often uses the past simple when
UK English would use the present perfect.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT
WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

REWRITE THE SENTENCES
IN THE PAST SIMPLE

CHECKLIST
Present perfect

Travel experiences

Talking about the recent past

85

Things I have done
You can use the present perfect to talk about personal
achievements. Modifying adverbs can help you to be
precise about when the achievements happened.

New language Modifying adverbs
Vocabulary Adventure sports
New skill Talking about your achievements

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT PERFECT WITH MODIFYING ADVERBS
Modifying adverbs give more information
about when or if an action happened.

The adverb “already”
means that something
has happened or been
completed, possibly
earlier than expected.

“Already” is usually placed before the main verb.

“Just” is placed before the main verb.

The adverb “just” means
“a short time ago.”

The adverb “yet” is used
to talk about something
that is expected to happen.
It is used only in questions
and negative sentences.

“Yet” is usually placed at the end of the sentence.

“Still” is usually placed after the subject.

The adverb “still”
means an action or
situation is ongoing.

86

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE MODIFYING ADVERB IN THE
CORRECT PLACE

READ THE POSTCARD AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

87

VOCABULARY ADVENTURE SPORTS

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS IN FULL SENTENCES

88

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Maria and Kevin are talking about
the things they’ve done since they
got married, three years ago.

CHECKLIST
Modifying adverbs

Adventure sports

Talking about your achievements

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 20–25
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

PAST SIMPLE WITH EMPHASIS

PAST SIMPLE IRREGULAR VERBS

PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES
PRESENT PERFECT: TO GIVE
NEW INFORMATION
PRESENT PERFECT: TO TALK ABOUT
A REPEATED ACTION
PRESENT PERFECT: TO TALK ABOUT AN
EVENT THAT IS STILL HAPPENING NOW
PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
PRESENT PERFECT WITH
MODIFYING ADVERBS

89

Activities in progress
Use the present perfect continuous to talk about
ongoing activities in the past. Use “for” and “since” to
talk about the length or starting point of an activity.

New language Present perfect continuous
Vocabulary Home improvements
New skill Talking about activities in the past

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
The present perfect continuous describes an activity that took place over a period
of time in the recent past. The activity might just have stopped or might still be happening.
The past activity
often affects the
present moment.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
“I have” can be shortened to “I’ve.”

“He has” can be shortened to “He’s.”

HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
SUBJECT

“HAS / HAVE”

“BEEN”

Use “have” or “has,”
depending on the subject.

90

VERB + “-ING”

“Been” stays the
same for all subjects.

OBJECT

Add “-ing” to
the main verb.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT
PERFECT CONTINUOUS

READ THE ARTICLE AND MATCH THE PICTURES TO THE PHRASES

91

KEY LANGUAGE “FOR” AND “SINCE”
English uses “for” with the present perfect continuous to show
the length of time that an action has taken. “Since” is used to
show the starting point of the action.

“FOR” + QUANTITY OF TIME

This means the speaker started painting three hours ago.

“SINCE” + TIME OR DATE

This means the speaker started painting at 3pm.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “FOR” AND “SINCE”

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 16 CORRECT SENTENCES AND SAY
THEM OUT LOUD

92

FILL IN THE GAPS WITH “FOR” OR “SINCE”

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND WRITE HOW LONG THE ACTIVITY IN EACH
PICTURE HAS BEEN GOING ON FOR

CHECKLIST
Present perfect continuous

Home improvements

Talking about activities in the past

93

My talents and skills
When you see evidence that something has happened,
you can use the present perfect continuous to ask
questions about it.

New language Present perfect continuous questions
Vocabulary Hobbies and interests
New skill Asking about past events

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS QUESTIONS
English uses present perfect continuous questions to ask about ongoing actions in
the recent past, especially when there is evidence that an action has taken place.
The subject goes between “have” and “been.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS QUESTIONS

HOW TO FORM PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS QUESTIONS
In present perfect continuous questions, the subject comes between “has” or “have” and “been.”
“HAS / HAVE”

SUBJECT

Start the question with
“has” or “have.”

94

“BEEN”

VERB+ “-ING”

The subject is
followed by “been.”

OBJECT

Add “-ing”
to the verb.

REWRITE THE STATEMENTS
AS QUESTIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Cath is going to Vikram’s house for
dinner. The two friends haven’t seen
each other for a long time.

MATCH THE STATEMENTS TO THE QUESTIONS

95

KEY LANGUAGE “HOW LONG?”
You can add “how long”
to the beginning of present
perfect continuous questions
to ask about the duration of
actions in the past. Answers
to these questions use the
present perfect continuous
with “for” or “since.”

“How long” is added to the beginning of the question.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “HOW LONG?”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER

96

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

SAY THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS QUESTIONS OUT LOUD,
FILLING IN THE GAPS

CHECKLIST
Present perfect continuous questions

Hobbies and interests

Asking about past events

97

Activities and their results
English uses the present perfect continuous to talk about
recent activities that are probably still ongoing. Use the
present perfect simple to talk about finished activities.

New language Forms of the present perfect
Vocabulary State and action verbs
New skill Talking about results of activities

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
AND PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
Use the present perfect continuous to emphasize the continuous nature
of an activity in the past. It is possible that the activity is still going on.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Use the present perfect simple to emphasize the completion of an
activity in the past. It is likely that the activity is finished.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

FURTHER EXAMPLES PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
AND PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

98

MARK THE SENTENCES THAT ARE CORRECT

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHETHER THE ACTIVITY IN EACH
PICTURE IS IN PROGRESS OR FINISHED

In progress

In progress
In progress
Finished

Finished

Finished

In progress
Finished

In progress
Finished

99

COMMON MISTAKES STATE VERBS AND ACTION VERBS
State verbs describe feelings or a state of mind.
Action verbs describe an action. You cannot
normally use state verbs in the continuous form.

“Love” is a state verb, so it is correct
to use it in the present perfect simple.

It is incorrect to use “love” in
the present perfect continuous.

READ THE ARTICLE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS AS
FULL SENTENCES

100

DESCRIBE THE PICTURES OUT LOUD USING THE PRESENT PERFECT
CONTINUOUS OR PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

REWRITE THE LETTER, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

CHECKLIST
Forms of the present perfect

State and action verbs

Talking about results of activities

101

Everyday problems
Prefixes that mean “not” are called negative prefixes.
Many words that have negative prefixes are useful for
talking about everyday workplace and urban problems.

New language Negative prefixes
Vocabulary Urban problems
New skill Talking about everyday problems

KEY LANGUAGE NEGATIVE PREFIXES
Negative prefixes change a word’s meaning to its opposite.

The opposite of “organized.”

The opposite of “tidy.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES NEGATIVE PREFIXES

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

102

READ THE ARTICLE AND FIND 11 MORE WORDS THAT BEGIN WITH
NEGATIVE PREFIXES

SAY THE OPPOSITE OF THE STATEMENTS OUT LOUD, USING
NEGATIVE PREFIXES

103

VOCABULARY URBAN PROBLEMS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Julia tells her colleague Marisha about a difficult trip to work.

104

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Negative prefixes

Urban problems

Talking about everyday problems

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 26–29
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

“FOR” AND “SINCE”
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
QUESTIONS
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
FOR ONGOING ACTIVITIES
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
FOR FINISHED ACTIVITIES
STATE VERBS

NEGATIVE PREFIXES

105

General and specific things
Articles sit before the noun in English, and give more
information about which item is being described.
Use “the” to talk about specific items.

New language Definite and zero articles
Vocabulary Possessions
New skill Talking about the things you own

KEY LANGUAGE DEFINITE AND ZERO ARTICLES
English uses no article
(zero article) to talk
about things in general.
Use “the” (definite
article) to talk about
specific things.
SPECIFIC

FURTHER EXAMPLES DEFINITE AND ZERO ARTICLES

106

GENERAL

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

READ THE ARTICLE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

107

KEY LANGUAGE “HAVE” AND “HAVE GOT”
You can use “have” or “have got” to talk about the things
you own. “Have” is appropriate in all situations, but
“have got” is only used in spoken UK English.

“Have” becomes “has”
in the third person singular.

Always use “have”
in the negative.

The subject sits between
“do” and “have” in questions.

“Got” doesn’t change
when the subject changes.

“Have not” can be
shortened to “haven’t.”

The subject sits between
“have” and “got” in questions.

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 6 CORRECT QUESTIONS AND SAY
THEM OUT LOUD

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DESCRIBED

108

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO FROM 30.7 AGAIN AND MARK THE THINGS
THAT YOU HEAR

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Definite and zero articles

Possessions

Talking about the things you own

109

Vocabulary
FOOD AND DRINK

110

111

Myself, yourself
English uses reflexive pronouns when the subject of the
verb is the same as the object. They show that the action
affects the person who is carrying it out.

New language Reflexive pronouns
Vocabulary Measurements and flavors
New skill Talking about food and recipes

KEY LANGUAGE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
Reflexive pronouns in English include the
word “self ” (or “selves” in the plural).

The subject pronoun refers to
the person doing the action.

Use a reflexive pronoun when
the same person is affected by the action.

FURTHER EXAMPLES REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

KEY LANGUAGE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
SUBJECT PRONOUNS

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

112

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND WRITE THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUN
YOU HEAR UNDER EACH IMAGE

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

113

VOCABULARY
MEASUREMENTS
The most common measurements
of weight and volume are written
and abbreviated as follows.

READ THE LIST OF INGREDIENTS
OUT LOUD
Two pounds of dark chocolate

METRIC MEASUREMENTS

ARK CH
ULT IM AT E D

IMPERIAL MEASUREMENTS

KE
OCOL AT E CA

olate
2 lb dark choc
2oz butter
ffee granules
co
t
n
a
st
¡n
sp
1 tb
powder
¼ tsp bak¡ng
m¡lk
3 fl. oz butter
1pt cream
2 c flour
¼ lb sugar
3 eggs

VOCABULARY ADJECTIVES TO DESCRIBE FOOD AND DRINK

114

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

READ THE TEXT MESSAGES
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Reflexive pronouns

Measurements and flavors

Talking about food and recipes

115

What things are for
English uses gerunds and infinitives to talk about why
people use things. This is useful for describing the
purpose of everyday objects and household gadgets.

New language Gerunds and infinitives
Vocabulary Household gadgets
New skill Talking about why you use things

KEY LANGUAGE GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
When you talk about why you generally use things, you can use “for”
with a gerund, or the infinitive (“to” plus verb). The meaning is the same.

The present simple
expresses a routine action.

FURTHER EXAMPLES GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

116

“For” with a gerund

Infinitive

KEY LANGUAGE INFINITIVES FOR SPECIFIC ACTIONS
When you talk about why someone does a specific action rather than
what you do with something in general, you must use the infinitive.
It is incorrect to use “for” and a gerund in this case.
Sentence refers to a specific
action, not a routine action.

Sentence refers to one particular
email, not emails in general.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
On a radio show, three inventors
present their new gadgets.

117

KEY LANGUAGE PHRASAL VERBS
Things you do with gadgets are often explained
in English using separable phrasal verbs.

The particle can come
straight after the verb.

The particle can come after the object.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

USE THE WORDS IN THE PANEL TO DESCRIBE THE
GADGETS, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

118

READ THE GUIDE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Gerunds and infinitives

Household gadgets

Talking about why you use things

119

Vocabulary
SPORTS

120

EQUIPMENT

VENUES

121

Opinions and plans
When you give opinions on activities such as sports, you
often use verbs with gerunds. When you talk about plans
to do an activity, you use verbs with infinitives.

New language Simple verb patterns
Vocabulary Sports and leisure
New skill Talking about opinions and plans

KEY LANGUAGE VERBS WITH GERUNDS
English uses gerunds after certain
verbs that say how a person
feels about an activity.
The verb describes feelings about an activity.

The word for the activity is in gerund form.

FURTHER EXAMPLES VERBS WITH GERUNDS

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN GERUND FORM

122

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE WORDS

123

KEY LANGUAGE VERBS WITH INFINITIVES
English uses the infinitive with “to” after certain verbs
that describe someone’s plans or wishes to do an activity.

Main verb describes a plan
or wish to do an activity.

Infinitive with “to”
describes the activity.

FURTHER EXAMPLES VERBS WITH INFINITIVES
The infinitive doesn’t change no matter what tense the main verb is in.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 12 CORRECT SENTENCES AND SAY
THEM OUT LOUD

124

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Cyclist Kofi Osei talks about last year’s Olympics.

CHECKLIST
Simple verb patterns

Sports and leisure

Talking about opinions and plans

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 30–35
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

DEFINITE AND ZERO ARTICLES

“HAVE” AND “HAVE GOT”

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

“FOR” WITH A GERUND

INFINITIVES FOR PURPOSE

PHRASAL VERBS FOR USING GADGETS

VERBS WITH GERUNDS FOR OPINIONS

VERBS WITH INFINITIVES FOR PLANS

125

Future arrangements
In English, the present continuous can be used when
talking about future arrangements that have already
been planned for a specific time.

New language Present continuous for plans
Vocabulary Collocations with “take”
New skill Talking about future arrangements

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR FUTURE PLANS
You can use present continuous verbs paired with future time clauses
to talk about future events that are already planned.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS

FUTURE TIME CLAUSE

FURTHER EXAMPLES PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR FUTURE PLANS

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE
PRESENT CONTINUOUS

126

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Maria is on the phone to
Catherine, arranging a time to
meet up for coffee or lunch.

127

KEY LANGUAGE COLLOCATIONS WITH “TAKE”
The verb “take” often appears in English collocations.

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE COLLOCATIONS

128

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DESCRIBED

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS

CHECKLIST
Present continuous for plans

Collocations with “take”

Talking about future arrangements

129

Planning the future
You can use “going to” when talking about something
you’ve decided to do in the future, such as getting fit.
This is useful for discussing intentions and predictions.

New language “Going to”
Vocabulary Healthy living
New skill Talking about plans to keep fit

KEY LANGUAGE DECISION BEFORE SPEAKING
Use “going to”
when you have
already decided
to do something
before speaking.

Put “to be” + “going to”
before the main verb.

Base form of the verb.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE FUTURE WITH “GOING TO”

READ THE LIST AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

130

KEY LANGUAGE PREDICTION BASED ON EVIDENCE
You can also use “going to” when making a prediction
about the future based on something you know is true
when you are speaking.
This is the future outcome.

PREDICTION

You know this is true.

EVIDENCE

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER THEY
ARE DESCRIBED
Paul and Anya are discussing Anya’s
plans to lose weight and get fit.

131

KEY LANGUAGE ADVERB MODIFIERS WITH “GOING TO”
English uses modifiers to show how definite the future action will be.

Something is likely.

There is no doubt about something happening.

A more emphatic form of “definitely.”

KEY LANGUAGE VERB MODIFIERS WITH “GOING TO”
You can also change the verb to make the
prediction more or less certain.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

132

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

USE THE CHART TO CREATE EIGHT CORRECT SENTENCES AND
SAY THEM OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
“Going to”

Healthy living

Talking about plans to keep fit

133

Vocabulary
WEATHER AND CLIMATE

134

WEATHER ADJECTIVES

135

Predictions and promises
You can talk about future events in English using the
verb “will.” This construction has several meanings,
which are all different from the future using “going to.”

New language Future tense with “will”
Vocabulary Weather
New skill Making predictions and promises

KEY LANGUAGE THE FUTURE USING “WILL”
English uses “will” when talking about the future in four main ways:
To make a
prediction about
what you think
will happen.

TIP

Remember to use the
future with “going to” for
predictions based on current
evidence, and for decisions
made before the time
of speaking.

This prediction is not
based on evidence.

To offer to
do something
for someone.

To make a
promise.
This decision was not
planned in advance.

To describe a
decision you’ve
just made.

FILL IN THE GAPS WITH EITHER “WILL” OR “TO BE” WITH “GOING TO”

136

MARK WHETHER EACH SENTENCE IS A PREDICTION, OFFER, PROMISE,
OR DECISION

Prediction

Offer

Promise

Decision

Prediction

Offer

Promise

Decision

Prediction

Offer

Promise

Decision

Prediction

Offer

Promise

Decision

Prediction

Offer

Promise

Decision

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
IN FULL SENTENCES
Carla is talking to her sister Stacey on the
phone about her plans for the evening.

137

KEY LANGUAGE ADVERBS WITH “WILL”
Add an adverb after ‘‘will’’ to show how likely
you think the future action is to occur.

KEY LANGUAGE VERBS THAT MODIFY THE FUTURE WITH “WILL”
Like the future with “going to,” the future with “will” is often used
to say what someone thinks or knows about the future.
Shows the “will” phrase is unlikely.

Shows the “will” phrase is certain.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

138

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MATCH THE MODIFYING ADVERBS TO THE
ACTIVITIES YOU HEAR

CHECKLIST
Future tense with “will”

Weather

Making predictions and promises

139

Possibility
The modal verb “might” is used to talk about things
that are possible but not certain. It is often used
when talking about the weather.

New language “Might” to show possibility
Vocabulary Weather and landscape
New skill Discussing possibilities

KEY LANGUAGE “MIGHT” FOR POSSIBILITY
You can add “might” to different phrases to refer
to past, present, or future possibilities.
PAST POSSIBILITY

“MIGHT” + “HAVE” + PAST PARTICIPLE

PRESENT POSSIBILITY
“MIGHT” + “BE”

FUTURE POSSIBILITY
“MIGHT” + BASE VERB

FURTHER EXAMPLES “MIGHT” FOR POSSIBILITY

TIP

Questions with “might”
are only used in very
formal English.

“Not” always comes after
“might” to form the negative.

140

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

REWRITE THE HIGHLIGHTED PHRASES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

141

KEY LANGUAGE CONTRACTIONS OF “MIGHT”
In spoken English, “have” is often contracted in phrases with “might.”

FILL IN THE GAPS BY CONTRACTING “HAVE”

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, CONTRACTING “HAVE”

142

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Phoebe and Javid have become lost
while hiking. They are deciding which
way to go next.

CHECKLIST
“Might” to show possibility

Weather and landscape

Discussing possibilities

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 36–40
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR
FUTURE PLANS
COLLOCATIONS WITH “TAKE”
USING “GOING TO” WHEN YOU HAVE
MADE A DECISION BEFORE SPEAKING
USING “GOING TO” TO MAKE A
PREDICTION BASED ON EVIDENCE
USING “WILL” TO MAKE A PREDICTION
AND TO OFFER TO DO SOMETHING
USING “WILL” WHEN PROMISING AND
DECIDING AT THE TIME OF SPEAKING
“MIGHT” TO SHOW PAST POSSIBILITY
“MIGHT” TO SHOW PRESENT
POSSIBILITY
“MIGHT” TO SHOW FUTURE
POSSIBILITY

143

Vocabulary
SICKNESS AND HEALTH

144

145

Obligations
In English, you can use “have to” or “must” when talking
about obligations or things that are necessary. You may
hear it in important instructions such as medical advice.

New language “Must” and “have to”
Vocabulary Health and sickness
New skill Expressing obligation

KEY LANGUAGE OBLIGATIONS
“Must” and “have to”
both express a strong
need or obligation
to do something.
“Must not” is a strong
negative obligation.
It means something
is not allowed.
“Don’t have to” means
something is not
necessary, or there
is no obligation.

FURTHER EXAMPLES OBLIGATIONS

HOW TO FORM OBLIGATIONS
“Must” does not change
with the subject, but
“have to” becomes “has
to” in the third person
singular. Both forms are
followed by the base
form of the main verb.

146

SUBJECT

“MUST / HAVE TO”

MAIN VERB

OBJECT

MATCH THE PHRASES THAT MEAN THE SAME THING

READ NADIA’S NOTE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

CHECKLIST
“Must” and “have to”

Health and sickness

Expressing obligation

147

Making deductions
In English, you can add an extra verb (called a “modal
verb”) to show if a statement is likely or unlikely. You
may hear modal verbs when people talk about sickness.

New language “Might” and “could”
Vocabulary Health and sickness
New skill Talking about possibility

KEY LANGUAGE “MIGHT” AND “COULD”
The modal verbs “might” and “could” are useful
for saying that you’re not sure about something.
Use “might” and
“could” when
something is
not certain.
Use “might not”
to describe a
negative that is
not certain.

The modal verb doesn’t
change with the subject.

“Not” sits after
the modal verb.

Use “could not” and
“couldn’t” to say that
something was not
possible in the past.

Use “cannot” and
“can’t” when you’re
certain something
is impossible.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “MIGHT” AND “COULD”

148

The modal verb is usually followed
by the base form of the main verb.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

RESPOND TO THE AUDIO,
SPEAKING OUT LOUD

Jess and Boris are wondering why
their manager, Selina, is not at
work today.

149

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

150

READ THE EMAIL AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
“Might” and “could”

Health and sickness

Talking about possibility

151

Polite requests
Use “can,” “could,” and “may” to ask permission to do
something, or to ask someone to do something for you.
Some constructions are more formal than others.

New language “Can,” “could,” and “may”
Vocabulary Good manners
New skill Asking permission

KEY LANGUAGE “CAN,” “COULD,” AND “MAY”
Informal answers
use “can” as well.

Use “can I” plus the
verb to make a request.
“Can” is mostly used
in informal situations.

Make negative answers
more polite by adding
“I’m sorry” or “I’m afraid.”

“Could” replaces “can” for
more formal situations,
such as in business or
to talk to strangers.
Include “please” in
polite requests.

“May” can also be used
in formal situations.

FURTHER EXAMPLES “CAN,” “COULD,” AND “MAY”

TIP

“Could” and “may”
are rarely used
in short answers to
polite questions.

152

MARK THE BEST REPLY
TO EACH REQUEST
All of these replies are correct, but some are more
appropriate for formal or informal situations.

RESPOND OUT LOUD TO
THE AUDIO USING THE WORDS
IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
“Can,” “could,” and “may”

Good manners

Asking permission

153

More phrasal verbs
Some phrasal verbs contain three words rather
than two. Like two-word phrasal verbs, they are
often used in informal spoken English.

New language Three-word phrasal verbs
Vocabulary Personal relationships
New skill Understanding informal English

KEY LANGUAGE THREE-WORD PHRASAL VERBS
Three-word phrasal verbs
consist of a verb, a particle,
and a preposition. The particle
and preposition often change
the usual meaning of the verb.

VERB + PARTICLE + PREPOSITION

The verb changes
with the subject.

MATCH THE SENTENCES
WITH SIMILAR MEANINGS

The particle and preposition
never change form.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Amir tells Ruth about a
difficult situation at work.

154

INTONATION THREE-WORD PHRASAL VERBS
When you say three-word
phrasal verbs out loud,
put the stress on the
middle word.

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS USING THE
WORDS IN THE PANEL

REWRITE THESE SENTENCES USING THREE-WORD PHRASAL VERBS

CHECKLIST
Three-word phrasal verbs

Personal relationships

Understanding informal English

155

Asking for agreement
Use question tags in spoken English to encourage
another person to agree with you, or to check that
information is correct.

New language Question tags
Vocabulary Travel and leisure plans
New skill Checking information

KEY LANGUAGE QUESTION TAGS
When you use question tags, a negative question tag follows a positive statement,
and a positive question tag follows a negative statement. The verb that is
used in the question tag depends on the verb that is used in the statement.
PRESENT SIMPLE

A present simple
statement is followed
by a question tag with
the present simple
form of “do.”

QUESTION TAG

PAST SIMPLE

QUESTION TAG

A past simple statement
is followed by a question
tag with the past simple
form of “do.”

A statement with
an auxiliary verb
is followed by a
question tag with the
same auxiliary verb.

A statement with the
verb “be” is followed
by a question tag that
also uses “be.”

156

AUXILIARY
VERB

Auxiliary verb.

MAIN
VERB

QUESTION TAG

Main verb
describes the action.

VERB “BE”

Question tag
uses the same
auxiliary verb.

QUESTION TAG

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
CORRECTING THE ERRORS

ADD QUESTION TAGS
TO THE SENTENCES

CHANGE THE QUESTIONS INTO SENTENCES WITH QUESTION TAGS,
THEN SAY THEM OUT LOUD

157

KEY LANGUAGE QUESTION TAGS WITH MODAL VERBS
Statements with
modal verbs such as
“could,” “would,” and
“should” are followed
by question tags
that use the same
modal verb.

MODAL VERB

QUESTION TAG

Use the same modal verb in the
statement and the question tag.

FURTHER EXAMPLES QUESTION TAGS WITH MODAL VERBS

ADD QUESTION TAGS
TO THE SENTENCES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Aman and Leta are packing
for their vacation.

158

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, ADDING QUESTION TAGS

CHECKLIST
Question tags

Travel and leisure plans

Checking information

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 42–46
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

“MUST” AND “HAVE TO”
“MUST NOT” AND
“DON’T HAVE TO”
“MIGHT” AND “COULD”
“MIGHT NOT” AND
“COULD NOT”
“CAN,” “COULD,” AND “MAY”

THREE-WORD PHRASAL VERBS

QUESTION TAGS
QUESTION TAGS WITH
MODAL VERBS

159

Vocabulary
SCIENCE

160

TOOLS

161

Things that are always true
English uses the zero conditional to talk about actions
that always have the same results. This is useful for
talking about scientific facts.

New language Zero conditional
Vocabulary Scientific facts
New skill Talking about general truths

KEY LANGUAGE THE ZERO CONDITIONAL
The zero conditional uses
“if ” or “when” with the
present simple, followed
by the present simple in
the main clause.

ACTION

RESULT

Both can be used without
changing the meaning.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE ZERO CONDITIONAL

HOW TO FORM THE ZERO CONDITIONAL
“IF / WHEN”

Both can
be used.

162

ACTION (PRESENT SIMPLE)

Present simple
describes the action.

COMMA

Comma separates
action from result.

RESULT (PRESENT SIMPLE)

Result is described
using present simple.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

163

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE SENTENCES IN THE ORDER
YOU HEAR THEM
Ayida is giving
her class a
science lesson.

LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS
IN THE PANEL

164

ANOTHER WAY TO SAY THE ZERO CONDITIONAL
Sentences using the zero conditional can be
reversed, so the result comes before the action.

The result can come at the
beginning of the sentence.

Use a comma if the action comes first.

“If ” or “when” can sit between the action
and result, without a comma.

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT
LOUD, REVERSING THE ORDER
OF THE PHRASES

REWRITE THE SENTENCES,
PUTTING THE WORDS IN THE
CORRECT ORDER

CHECKLIST
Zero conditional

Scientific facts

Talking about general truths

165

Describing a process
When the thing receiving the action is more important
than the person or thing doing the action, you can
emphasize it using the present simple passive.

New language Present simple passive
Vocabulary Science experiments
New skill Describing a process

KEY LANGUAGE THE PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE
When it is unimportant, or not known, who or what
does an action, English uses the present simple passive.
The passive also has the effect of emphasizing the action.

It is not known or not important
who heats the water.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE

Use “not” to form negatives of the present simple passive.

HOW TO FORM THE PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE
SUBJECT

The thing that
receives the action.

166

PAST PARTICIPLE

“IS / ARE”

Present simple
of verb “to be.”

REST OF SENTENCE

The past participle describes
what happens to the subject.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING THE PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE

167

SAY FULL SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING
THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHETHER EACH ACTIVITY IS
DESCRIBED IN THE ACTIVE OR PASSIVE VOICE
ACTIVE

168

PASSIVE

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
Present simple passive

Science experiments

Describing a process

169

Things that might happen
English uses conditional verbs to describe the future
results of a proposed action. This is useful for suggesting
plans and giving advice.

New language First conditional
Vocabulary Tools and making things
New skill Giving advice and instructions

KEY LANGUAGE THE FIRST CONDITIONAL
The first conditional expresses a suggested
action that might lead to a future result.
SUGGESTED ACTION

FUTURE RESULT

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE FIRST CONDITIONAL

First conditional sentences
can start with the result.
There is no comma before “if.”

HOW TO FORM THE FIRST CONDITIONAL
The first conditional is usually introduced by “if ” followed by the
present simple. The future with “will” expresses the result.
“IF”

PRESENT SIMPLE

“If ” shows that the
sentence is conditional.

170

Present simple tense
describes suggested action.

COMMA

FUTURE WITH “WILL”

Comma separates
action from result.

Future with “will”
describes the result.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE CORRECT TENSES

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO
AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT
LOUD, REVERSING THE ORDER
OF THE PHRASES

Gilly is building a cupboard
and Colin is trying to help.

171

KEY LANGUAGE FIRST CONDITIONAL WITH “UNLESS”
You can use “unless” instead of “if ” in conditional sentences.
“Unless” means “if…not,” so the future result depends
on the suggested action not happening.

FURTHER EXAMPLES FIRST CONDITIONAL WITH “UNLESS”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING “UNLESS”

172

READ THE INSTRUCTION MANUAL AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE
QUESTIONS AS FULL SENTENCES

CHECKLIST
First conditional

Tools and making things

Giving advice and instructions

173

Solving problems
You can use the first conditional with an imperative
to give people practical instructions or advice, such
as how to solve problems or improve their lifestyle.

New language First conditional with imperative
Vocabulary Health and wellbeing
New skill Giving advice and instructions

KEY LANGUAGE FIRST CONDITIONAL WITH IMPERATIVE
In first conditional sentences, you can use an imperative instead of the future with “will.”
This makes the sentence an instruction or a suggestion instead of a prediction about the future.
PROBLEM

SOLUTION

FURTHER EXAMPLES FIRST CONDITIONAL WITH IMPERATIVE

Leave the comma out of sentences
that start with the imperative.

HOW TO FORM FIRST CONDITIONAL WITH IMPERATIVE
Use “if ” followed by the present simple to describe a problem.
The imperative gives the solution to the problem.
“IF”

PRESENT SIMPLE

“If ” shows that the
sentence is conditional.

174

Present simple tense
describes the problem.

IMPERATIVE

COMMA

Comma separates
problem from solution.

The imperative gives the
solution to the problem.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Tanya is talking to her father
about selling her house.

175

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

176

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS TO THE WORDS AND PHRASES

USE THE FIRST CONDITIONAL WITH AN IMPERATIVE TO GIVE ADVICE FOR
EACH SITUATION, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
First conditional with imperative

Health and wellbeing

Giving advice and instructions

177

Planning activities
You can use subordinate time clauses to talk about
sequences of events, where one thing must happen
before another thing can happen.

New language Subordinate time clauses
Vocabulary Building works
New skill Describing sequences of events

KEY LANGUAGE SUBORDINATE TIME CLAUSES
English uses “when” and
“as soon as” to talk about
events or actions in the
future that happen before
another event or action
can take place. These
phrases are called
subordinate time clauses.

FIRST EVENT

SECOND EVENT

These phrases
indicate that the
first event has not
happened yet.

FURTHER EXAMPLES SUBORDINATE TIME CLAUSES

You can also use
subordinate time clauses
to ask about future events.

HOW TO FORM SUBORDINATE TIME CLAUSES
“WHEN / AS SOON AS”

PRESENT SIMPLE

COMMA

The present simple describes the first
event, even though it is a future event.

178

FUTURE WITH “WILL”

The future with “will”
describes the second event.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT SIMPLE
OR FUTURE WITH “WILL”

READ THE EMAIL AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

179

ANOTHER WAY TO SAY SUBORDINATE TIME CLAUSES
UK English sometimes uses the present perfect instead
of the present simple in subordinate time clauses.

The present perfect still describes a future event.

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DESCRIBED

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, REVERSING THE ORDER
OF THE PHRASES

180

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

CHECKLIST
Subordinate time clauses

Building works

Describing sequences of events

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 48–52
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

ZERO CONDITIONAL

PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE

FIRST CONDITIONAL WITH “IF”

FIRST CONDITIONAL WITH “UNLESS”

FIRST CONDITIONAL PLUS IMPERATIVE
SUBORDINATE TIME CLAUSES
WITH PRESENT SIMPLE
SUBORDINATE TIME CLAUSES
WITH PRESENT PERFECT

181

Unlikely situations
English uses the second conditional to describe the
result of an unlikely or impossible event. Because
the event is unlikely, the result is also unlikely.

New language Second conditional
Vocabulary Collocations with “make” and “do”
New skill Talking about future dreams

KEY LANGUAGE THE SECOND CONDITIONAL
Like the first
conditional, the
second conditional
uses “if ” to describe
an action. The
result is described
using “would.”

UNLIKELY ACTION

UNLIKELY RESULT

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE SECOND CONDITIONAL
“He would” can be shortened to “he’d.”

The action can come after the result
in second conditional sentences.
There is no comma before “if.”

HOW TO FORM THE SECOND CONDITIONAL
“IF”

PAST SIMPLE

“If ” shows that the
sentence is conditional.

182

Past simple tense
describes the action.

COMMA

“WOULD” + BASE FORM OF VERB

Comma separates
action from result.

Result is described
using “would” + verb.

FILL IN THE GAPS TO FORM SECOND CONDITIONAL
SENTENCES USING THE VERBS IN BRACKETS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Gavin tells Sara about
his new business idea.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES
TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

183

KEY LANGUAGE COLLOCATIONS WITH “DO” AND “MAKE”
In collocations, “do” is generally used to talk about regular tasks or activities.
“Make” generally expresses a single action or the creation of something new.
Use “do” for ongoing activities.

Use “make” for single actions.

READ THE EMAIL AND MATCH THE COLLOCATIONS
TO THEIR DEFINITIONS

184

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS

CHECKLIST
Second conditional

Collocations with “make” and “do”

Talking about future dreams

185

Vocabulary
EMOTIONS

186

187

Giving advice
The phrase “If I were you” is often used to give advice
in English. By saying it, you imagine that you are in
the same position as the person you are talking to.

New language “If I were you”
Vocabulary Phrases for giving advice
New skill Making suggestions

KEY LANGUAGE “IF I WERE YOU”
English uses “if I were you”
to give advice in second
conditional sentences.
The advice is expressed
using “I would.”

English uses “were,” not
“was,” in this context.

The advice comes after “I would.”

FURTHER EXAMPLES “IF I WERE YOU”

The suggestion can come first
without changing the meaning.

There is no comma before “if.”

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, REVERSING THE ORDER OF THE PHRASES

188

MARK THE SENTENCES
THAT ARE CORRECT

USE “IF I WERE YOU” TO GIVE
ADVICE, SPEAKING OUT LOUD

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Connor asks his colleague Isobel
for some advice at work.

189

KEY LANGUAGE QUESTION PHRASES WITH GERUNDS
To make suggestions, you can use a variety of opening
question phrases. These are always followed by a gerund.
Question
phrase.

Gerund.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING QUESTION PHRASES WITH GERUNDS

190

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 12 CORRECT SENTENCES
AND SAY THEM OUT LOUD

READ THE ARTICLE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

CHECKLIST
“If I were you”

Phrases for giving advice

Making suggestions

191

Real and unreal situations
English uses conditional sentences to talk about
possibilities. Use the first conditional or the second
conditional depending on how likely the situation is.

New language First and second conditional
Vocabulary Collocations for business meetings
New skill Talking about possibilities

KEY LANGUAGE FIRST AND SECOND CONDITIONAL
FIRST CONDITIONAL

LIKELY SITUATION
(PRESENT SIMPLE)

RESULT
(“WILL” + BASE VERB)

Use the first
conditional to
describe the result
of a likely situation.

SECOND CONDITIONAL

UNLIKELY SITUATION
(PAST SIMPLE)

RESULT
(“WOULD” + BASE VERB)

Use the second
conditional to
describe the result of
an unlikely situation.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES
TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

192

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Carlos is at a job interview.
The interviewer asks him what he
would do in different situations.

193

KEY LANGUAGE COLLOCATIONS WITH “GIVE,” “HOLD,” AND “SET”
The verbs “give,” “hold,” and “set” are often used
in English collocations in a business context.

READ THE EMAIL AND MATCH THE COLLOCATIONS
TO THEIR DEFINITIONS

194

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 6 CORRECT SENTENCES
AND SAY THEM OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
First and second conditionals

Collocations for business meetings

Talking about possibilities

195

Being specific
A relative clause is a part of a sentence that provides
more information about the subject. A defining relative
clause identifies the subject we are talking about.

New language Defining relative clauses
Vocabulary Personal characteristics
New skill Describing people and jobs

KEY LANGUAGE DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Defining relative clauses are used to describe exactly which
person or thing we are referring to. Without this information,
the meaning of the sentence changes.
Here the defining clause gives essential
information about a person.
MAIN CLAUSE

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

Relative pronoun for people.

Here the defining clause gives essential
information about a thing.
MAIN CLAUSE

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

Relative pronoun for things.

The defining clause can also go
in the middle of the main clause.

MAIN CLAUSE

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

Relative pronoun for things.

196

MAIN CLAUSE CONTINUED

HOW TO FORM DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Defining relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun.
English uses different relative pronouns to talk about
people and things.

MAIN CLAUSE

TIP

“That” is sometimes
used as a relative pronoun
for a person. While
this is commonly used,
it is not correct.

RELATIVE PRONOUN

REST OF RELATIVE CLAUSE

Use “who” as the relative
pronoun for a person.

MAIN CLAUSE

RELATIVE PRONOUN

REST OF RELATIVE CLAUSE

Use “that” as the relative
pronoun for a thing.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES USING DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

197

READ THE JOB DESCRIPTIONS AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

READ THE JOB DESCRIPTIONS AGAIN AND MATCH THE DEFINITIONS
TO THE WORDS AND PHRASES

198

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE SENTENCES
IN THE ORDER YOU HEAR THEM
George is lonely. He’s having coffee with
his friend Tina, who has a solution.

USE A DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE TO COMBINE THE SENTENCES,
THEN SAY THEM OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Defining relative clauses

Personal characteristics

Describing people and jobs

199

Adding information
Like defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses
add extra information about something. However, the
information is not essential, but gives extra detail.

New language Non-defining relative clauses
Vocabulary Personal characteristics
New skill Describing people, places, and things

KEY LANGUAGE NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
The non-defining clause in this sentence gives
secondary information about a person.

MAIN CLAUSE

NON-DEFINING
RELATIVE CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE CONTINUED

Relative pronoun for people.

The non-defining clause in this sentence gives
secondary information about a place.

MAIN CLAUSE

NON-DEFINING
RELATIVE CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE
CONTINUED

Relative pronoun for places and things.

FURTHER EXAMPLES NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

200

HOW TO FORM NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Non-defining relative clauses come in the middle of a sentence,
after the subject and before the main verb.

SUBJECT

COMMA

RELATIVE
PRONOUN

REST OF
RELATIVE CLAUSE

“Who” is used when speaking
about a person.

SUBJECT

COMMA

RELATIVE
PRONOUN

REST OF
RELATIVE CLAUSE

REST OF
MAIN CLAUSE

MAIN
VERB

COMMA

Commas separate the
non-defining clause from
the main clause.

COMMA

MAIN
VERB

REST OF
MAIN CLAUSE

“Which” is used when speaking
about a thing.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
IN THE PANEL

201

REWRITE THE SENTENCES, CORRECTING THE ERRORS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DESCRIBED

202

USE THE CHART TO CREATE 16 CORRECT SENTENCES AND SAY THEM
OUT LOUD

CHECKLIST
Non-defining relative clauses

Personal characteristics

Describing people, places and things

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 53–58
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

THE SECOND CONDITIONAL
COLLOCATIONS WITH “DO”
AND “MAKE”
“IF I WERE YOU”

QUESTION PHRASES WITH GERUNDS

FIRST AND SECOND CONDITIONALS
COLLOCATIONS WITH “GIVE”
AND “HOLD”
COLLOCATIONS WITH “SET”

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

203

What was happening when?
To report on past events, such as a crime or accident,
you often need to explain what else was happening at
the time. Use the past continuous to do this.

New language Past continuous
Vocabulary Verb / noun collocations
New skill Talking about events at given times

KEY LANGUAGE THE PAST CONTINUOUS
English uses the past continuous to talk about actions that
were in progress at a certain time in the past.

Past simple

Past continuous

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PAST CONTINUOUS

HOW TO FORM THE PAST CONTINUOUS
Use “was” or “were” followed by the verb with “-ing” to form the past continuous.
SUBJECT

“WAS / WERE”

Use “was” or “were”
depending on the subject.

204

VERB + “-ING”

REST OF SENTENCE

Add “-ing” to the main verb.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PAST CONTINUOUS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO, THEN NUMBER THE PICTURES IN THE ORDER
THEY ARE DESCRIBED
A police officer is interviewing the owner of a house where a burglary has taken place.

205

READ THE NOTES AND FILL IN THE GAPS IN THE SUMMARY USING
THE PAST CONTINUOUS

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING
THE VERBS IN THE PAST CONTINUOUS

206

READ THE LEAFLET AND WRITE THE HIGHLIGHTED COLLOCATIONS
NEXT TO THEIR DEFINITIONS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Past continuous

Verb / noun collocations

Talking about events at given times

207

Vocabulary
THE NATURAL WORLD

208

ANIMALS

209

Setting the scene
To set the scene in a story, English uses the past
continuous to describe the background situation,
and descriptive adjectives to say what a place is like.

New language Past continuous
Vocabulary Adjectives to describe places
New skill Setting the scene for a story

KEY LANGUAGE PAST CONTINUOUS FOR SCENE-SETTING
The past continuous is formed the
same way when setting a scene as for
describing past actions in progress.

READ THE STORY AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

210

MATCH THE DEFINITIONS
TO THE WORDS

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
You will hear the beginning
of a short story.

READ THE DIARY AND FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS
IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Past continuous

Adjectives to describe places

Setting the scene for a story

211

Interrupted actions
English often uses the past continuous and the
past simple together to tell stories, especially
when one event interrupts another.

New language Past continuous and past simple
Vocabulary Travel and leisure
New skill Describing interrupted actions

KEY LANGUAGE PAST CONTINUOUS AND PAST SIMPLE
When English uses the past continuous and past simple together,
the past continuous describes a longer, background action, and
the past simple describes a shorter action that interrupts the
background action.
LONGER BACKGROUND ACTION

SHORTER MAIN ACTION

FURTHER EXAMPLES PAST CONTINUOUS AND PAST SIMPLE

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND MARK WHICH TENSE DESCRIBES
THE ACTIVITY IN EACH PICTURE

us
Pa st continuo
Pa st simple

212

Past continuous
Past simple

Pa st continuo
Pa st simple

us
Pa st continuo

Pa st simple

us

Pa st continuo
Pa st simple

us

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE CORRECT TENSES

READ THE EMAIL AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

213

READ THE EMAIL AND MATCH THE ADJECTIVES THAT HAVE
SIMILAR MEANINGS

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS

214

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORDS IN EACH SENTENCE

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

CHECKLIST
Past continuous and past simple

Travel and leisure

Describing interrupted actions

215

Events in the past
English uses the past simple passive to talk about events
in the past when it is the effect of an action that is
important, rather than the cause of the action.

New language Past simple passive
Vocabulary Environmental disasters
New skill Talking about important events

KEY LANGUAGE THE PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE
You can use the past simple passive to emphasize
the importance of actions and events in the
past and to draw attention to the things
or people that were affected by the events.

PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE

Use the passive to emphasize the effect rather than the cause.

FURTHER EXAMPLES THE PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE

HOW TO FORM THE PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE
SUBJECT

“WAS / WERE”

The thing that
receives the action.

216

PAST PARTICIPLE

Use “was” for singular subjects,
or “were” for plural subjects.

REST OF SENTENCE

The main verb is expressed
as a past participle.

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, CHANGING THEM FROM THE PAST
SIMPLE ACTIVE TO THE PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE

217

VOCABULARY DISASTERS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

READ THE ARTICLE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

218

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
A news reporter interviews Rosie,
an eyewitness, and José, a vet,
about an oil spill.

CHECKLIST
Past simple passive

Environmental disasters

Talking about important events

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 59–63
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

PAST CONTINUOUS

COLLOCATIONS WITH “TAKE”

COLLOCATIONS WITH “MAKE”

COLLOCATIONS WITH “HAVE”

PAST CONTINUOUS FOR SCENE-SETTING

PAST CONTINUOUS AND PAST SIMPLE

PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE

219

Before and after
English uses the past perfect with the past simple
to talk about two or more events that happened
at different times in the past.

New language Past perfect and past simple
Vocabulary Visual arts
New skill Describing sequences of past events

KEY LANGUAGE PAST PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
The past simple describes the event that is closest to the time of speaking.
The past perfect describes an event further back in the past.
PAST PERFECT

PAST SIMPLE

FURTHER EXAMPLES PAST PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE

220

HOW TO FORM THE PAST PERFECT
Use “had” followed by the past participle to form the past perfect.
SUBJECT

“HAD”

“Had” does not change
with the subject.

PAST PARTICIPLE

REST OF SENTENCE

The past participle describes
the action in the past.

MATCH THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SENTENCES TO THE CORRECT ENDINGS

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PAST PERFECT
OR PAST SIMPLE

221

READ THE ARTICLE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

222

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Tony and Erin are talking
about last night’s party.

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, FILLING IN THE GAPS
BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE PAST PERFECT OR PAST SIMPLE

CHECKLIST
Past perfect and past simple

Visual arts

Describing sequences of past events

223

First times
When you talk about the first time something happened,
such as visiting a new place, you often use “never” or
“ever” with the past perfect or present perfect.

New language “Never” / “ever” with past tenses
Vocabulary Travel adjectives
New skill Describing new experiences

KEY LANGUAGE PAST PERFECT WITH “NEVER” / “EVER”
Use the past perfect with “never” or “ever” to talk about
events in the past that happened for the first time.
PAST SIMPLE

PAST PERFECT WITH “NEVER”

“Never” means this had not happened before.
It sits between “had” and the past participle.

PAST SIMPLE

PAST PERFECT WITH “EVER”

“Ever” emphasizes that this is
the first time it had happened.

CROSS OUT THE INCORRECT WORD IN EACH SENTENCE

224

KEY LANGUAGE PRESENT PERFECT WITH “NEVER” / “EVER”
Use the present perfect with “never” or “ever” to talk
about events that are happening now for the first time.
PRESENT SIMPLE

PRESENT PERFECT WITH “NEVER”

“Never” means that this has not happened before.
It sits between “has” and the past participle.

PRESENT SIMPLE

PRESENT PERFECT WITH “EVER”

“Ever” emphasizes that this is
the first time it has happened.

FILL IN THE GAPS USING “HAVE” IN THE CORRECT TENSE

225

READ THE PASSAGE AND
WRITE THE HIGHLIGHTED WORDS
NEXT TO THEIR DEFINITIONS

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE WORDS IN THE PANEL

226

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Xavi is telling his new friend,
Elsa, about sights in his home
town of Barcelona.

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD USING “EVER” OR “NEVER,”
FILLING IN THE GAPS

CHECKLIST
“Never” / “ever” with past tenses

Travel adjectives

Describing new experiences

227

Vocabulary
COMMON ENGLISH IDIOMS

228

229

Telling a story
The past continuous, past simple, and past perfect are
often used together to describe past events in detail.
This is especially helpful for telling stories.

New language Narrative tenses
Vocabulary Idioms for storytelling
New skill Using different past tenses

KEY LANGUAGE NARRATIVE TENSES
The past continuous is used to set the scene. The past simple
describes actions in the story. The past perfect is used to talk
about things that happened before the beginning of the story.

PAST CONTINUOUS

PAST PERFECT

PAST SIMPLE

FILL IN THE GAPS BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN THE CORRECT TENSES

230

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Jonah tells Ben how he
proposed to his girlfriend.

CHECKLIST
Narrative tenses

Idioms for storytelling

Using different past tenses

231

What happened when?
English uses a number of words and phrases to show the
order in which past events occurred. They are often called
adverbials of time, and are useful when telling a story.

New language Time adverbs and phrases
Vocabulary Storytelling devices
New skill Putting events in order

KEY LANGUAGE TIME ADVERBS AND PHRASES
SAME TIME

These phrases
show two events
happened at the
same time. They
are often used
with descriptions
in the past
continuous.

“Just as” and “at the very moment”
go before the verb they modify.

AFTER

These phrases
show one event
happened after,
or as a result of,
another. They are
often used with
descriptions in the
past simple.

BEFORE

These phrases
show one event
happened before
another. They are
often used with
descriptions in
the past perfect.

Shows something
happened after.

Shows something happened as a result.

Sits before the verb it modifies.

Sits before the verb it modifies.

Sits after the
verb it modifies.

232

FILL IN THE GAPS USING THE PHRASES IN THE PANEL

SAY THE SENTENCES OUT LOUD, ADDING IN THE TIME ADVERBS

233

READ THE ARTICLE AND WRITE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS
AS FULL SENTENCES

234

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
Gareth tells his friend Maria about a
disagreement he had with his neighbors.

CHECKLIST
Time adverbs and phrases

Storytelling devices

Putting events in order

REVIEW THE ENGLISH YOU HAVE LEARNED IN UNITS 64–68
NEW LANGUAGE

SAMPLE SENTENCE

UNIT

PAST PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE

PAST PERFECT WITH “NEVER” / “EVER”
PRESENT PERFECT WITH
“NEVER” / “EVER”
NARRATIVE TENSES:
PAST CONTINUOUS
NARRATIVE TENSES: PAST SIMPLE

NARRATIVE TENSES: PAST PERF